W.K. Kellogg Foundation
W.K. Kellogg Foundation
Philosophy and Expectations
Action Steps for Grantees
Planning: Preparing for an Evaluation
1. Identifying Stakeholders and Establishing an Evaluation Team
2. Developing Evaluation Questions
3. Budgeting for an Evaluation
4. Selecting an E valuator
Implementation: Designing and Conducting an Evaluation
5. Determining Data-Collection Methods
6. Collecting Data
7. Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Utilization: Communicating Findings and Utilizing Results
8. Communicating Findings and Insights
9. Utilizing the Process and Results of Evaluation
Project evaluations that improve the way projects deliver services, improve project
management, and help project directors see problems more clearly and discover new
avenues for growth.
At the WK. Kellogg Foundation, we believe strongly that evaluation should be
conducted not only to demonstrate that a project worked, but also to improve the
way it works. An evaluation approach should be rigorous in its efforts to determine
the worth of a program and to guide program implementation and management, as
well as relevant and useful to program practitioners. Although evaluation is useful to
document impact and demonstrate accountability, it should also lead to more effective
programs, greater learning opportunities, and better knowledge of what works.
This Evaluation Handbook is designed to encourage dialogue about the role
evaluation should play at the project level. We encourage you to think differently
about evaluation, so that together we can move the discipline from a stand-alone
monitoring process to an integrated and valuable part of program planning and
We hope that you will find this information to be valuable. At the very least, it should
provide a solid base from which to make decisions that ultimately lead to stronger
programs and more effective services. In keeping with the spirit of evaluation, we
welcome any feedback you care to offer.
Thank you for your interest.
Anne C. Petersen
Senior Vice President for Programs
WK. Kellogg Foundation
Foreword by Anne C. Petersen — Senior Vice President for Programs I
Part One: W.K. Kellogg Foundation's Philosophy and Expectations . . .1
Where We Are: Understanding the W.K. Kellogg Foundation's Framework for Evaluation .... 2
How We Got Here: A Summary of the Evaluation Landscape, History
Paradigms, and Balancing Acts 4
The Evaluation Landscape 4
Historical Context of Evaluation in Human Services 4
The Scientific Method as the Dominant Evaluation Paradigm 5
Balancing the Call to Prove With the Need to Improve 6
Recommendations for a Better Balance 9
Three Levels of Evaluation 14
Project-Level Evaluation 14
Cluster Evaluation 17
Program and Policymaking Evaluation 18
Part Two: Blueprint for Conducting Project-Level Evaluation 19
Exploring the Three Components of Project-Level Evaluation 20
Context Evaluation 21
Implementation Evaluation 24
Outcome Evaluation 28
Program Logic Model Examples 38
Planning and Implementing Project-Level Evaluation 47
Planning Steps: Preparing for an Evaluation 48
Step 1: Identifying Stakeholders and Establishing an Evaluation Team 48
Step 2: Developing Evaluation Questions 51
Step 3: Budgeting for an Evaluation 54
Step 4: Selecting an Evaluator 57
Implementation Steps: Designing and Conducting an Evaluation 69
Step 5: Determining Data-Collection Methods 70
Step 6: Collecting Data 84
Step 7: Analyzing and Interpreting Data 87
Utilization Steps: Communicating Findings and Utilizing Results 96
Step 8: Communicating Findings and Insights 96
Step 9: Utilizing the Process and Results of Evaluation 99
Purpose of This Handbook
This handbook is guided by the belief that evaluation should be supportive and
responsive to projects, rather than become an end in itself. It provides a framework
for thinking about evaluation as a relevant and useful program tool. It is written
primarily for project directors who have direct responsibility for the ongoing
evaluation of W.K. Kellogg Foundation-funded projects. However, our hope is that
project directors will use this handbook as a resource for other project staff who have
evaluation responsibilities, for external evaluators, and for board members.
For project staff with evaluation experience, or for those inexperienced in evaluation
but with the time and resources to learn more, this handbook provides enough basic
information to allow project staff to conduct an evaluation without the assistance of
an external evaluator. For those with little or no evaluation experience, and without
the time or resources to learn more, this handbook can help project staff to plan and
conduct an evaluation with the assistance of an external evaluator.
This handbook is not intended to serve as an exhaustive instructional guide for
conducting evaluation. It provides a framework for thinking about evaluation and
outlines a blueprint for designing and conducting evaluations, either independendy or
with the support of an external evaluator/consultant. For more detailed guidance
on the technical aspects of evaluation, you may wish to consult the sources
recommended in the Bibliography section at the end of the handbook.
Organization of This Handbook
The handbook is made up of two principal sections. Taken together, they serve as a
framework for grantees to move from a shared vision for effective evaluation, to a
blueprint for designing and conducting evaluation, to actual practice. More
Part One presents an overview of our philosophy and expectations for evaluation. It
includes a summary of the most important characteristics of the Foundation's
evaluation approach, to guide all grantees as they plan and conduct project-level
evaluation. In addition, Part One reviews the contextual factors that have led to an
imbalance in how human service evaluation is defined and conducted, and includes
our recommendations for creating a better balance between proving that programs
work and improving how they work. Part One ends with an overview of the
Foundation's three levels of evaluation, with a particular focus on project-level
evaluation (the primary subject of this handbook).
Part Two provides a description of the three components of project-level evaluation
that can assist project staff in addressing a broad array of important questions about
their project. In addition, Part Two provides our grantees with a blueprint for
planning, designing, and conducting project-level evaluation. This section
highlights the important steps to take and links these steps to our
philosophy and expectations.
Throughout Part Two, examples are provided in the form of case studies of
Foundation grantees. The cases provide project directors with real
examples of ways in which evaluation can support projects. The sharing of
experiences, insights, what works and doesn't work, and how well the
project addresses the needs of people is vital to the learning that takes
place within and between Kellogg Foundation- funded projects.
Tlie W.K, Kellogg Foundation was established in 1930 to help
people help themselves through the practical application of
knowledge and resources to improve their quality of life and that
of future generations.
W.K. Kellogg Foundation's Philosophy and Expectations
Where We Are: Understanding the W.K. Kellogg Foundation's Framework
How We Got Here: A Summary of the Evaluation Landscape, History,
Paradigms, and Balancing Acts
The Evaluation Landscape
Historical Context of Evaluation in Human Services
The Scientific Method as the Dominant Evaluation Paradigm
Balancing the Call to Prove With the Need to Improve
Recommendations for a Better Balance
Three Levels of Evaluation
Program and Policymaking Evaluation
Evaluation is to help projects become even better
than they planned to be.... First and foremost,
evaluation should support the project. . . .
W.K. Kellogg Foundation
Evaluation Approach, 1991
W.K. Kellogg Foundation's
Philosophy and Expectations
Where We Are: Understanding the W.K. Kellogg
Foundation's Framework for Evaluation
The W.K. Kellogg Foundation places a high value on evaluation and has
established the following principles to help guide evaluation work.
Strengthen projects: Our goal is to improve the well-being of people.
Evaluation furthers this goal by providing ongoing, systematic information that
strengthens projects during their life cycle, and, whenever possible, outcome data
to assess the extent of change. The evaluation effort should leave an organization
stronger and more able to use such an evaluation when outside support ends.
Use multiple approaches: We support multidisciplinary approaches to
problem solving. Evaluation methods should include a range of techniques to
address important project questions.
Design evaluation to address real issues: We believe community-based
organizations should ground their evaluations in the real issues of their respective
communities. Therefore, evaluation efforts should also be community based and
contextual (based on local circumstances and issues) . The primary purpose is to
identify problems and opportunities in the project's real communities, and to
provide staff and stakeholders with reliable information from which to address
problems and build on strengths and opportunities.
Create a participatory process: Just as people participate in project activities,
people must participate in project evaluation. The best evaluations value multiple
perspectives and involve a representation of people who care about the project.
Effective evaluations also prepare organizations to use evaluation as an ongoing
function of management and leadership.
Allow for flexibility: We encourage flexibility in the way projects are
designed, implemented, and modified. Many Kellogg Foundation-funded projects
are not discrete programs, but complex, comprehensive efforts aimed at systemic
community change. Therefore, evaluation approaches must not be rigid and
prescriptive, or it will be difficult to document the incremental, complex, and
often subtle changes that occur over the life of an initiative. Instead, evaluation
plans should take an emergent approach, adapting and adjusting to the needs of
an evolving and complex project.
Build capacity: Evaluation should be concerned not only with specific
outcomes, but also with the skills, knowledge, and perspectives acquired by the
individuals who are involved with the project. We encourage ongoing self-
reflection and dialogue on the part of every person involved with evaluation in
order to reach increasingly sophisticated understandings of the projects being
evaluated. Specifically, the Foundation expects that:
• everyone involved in project evaluation spends time thinking about and
discussing how personal assumptions and beliefs affect his or her philosophy
of evaluation; and
• everyone (particularly those in leadership positions, such as project directors,
evaluators, board members, Kellogg program directors) reflects on the values
and politics embedded in the process, and honestly examines how these
influence what is focused on and what is missed; who is heard and not
heard; how interpretations are made; what conclusions are drawn; and how
they are presented.
Our vision for evaluation is rooted in the conviction that project evaluation and
project management are inextricably linked. In fact, we believe that "good
evaluation" is nothing more than "good thinking."
Effective evaluation is not an "event" that occurs at the end of a project, but is an
ongoing process which helps decision makers better understand the project; how
it is impacting participants, partner agencies and the community; and how it is
being influenced/impacted by both internal and external factors. Thinking of
evaluation tools in this way allows you to collect and analyze important data for
decision making throughout the life of a project: from assessing community
needs prior to designing a project, to making connections between project
activities and intended outcomes, to making mid-course changes in program
design, to providing evidence to funders that yours is an effort worth supporting.
We also believe that evaluation should not be conducted simply to prove that
a project worked, but also to improve the way it works. Therefore, do not view
evaluation only as an accountability measuring stick imposed on projects, but
rather as a management and learning tool for projects, for the Foundation,
and for practitioners in the field who can benefit from the experiences of
How We Got Here: A Summary of the Evaluation
Landscape, History, Paradigms, and Balancing Acts
By now you have a good sense of where we stand on evaluation. We take it
seriously and follow our philosophy with investments. But where do we stand in
the broader landscape? How did we arrive at our particular values and viewpoints
about the usefulness and power of evaluation? How did we find our place in the
world of evaluation? It takes a short history lesson and some understanding of the
art and science of research paradigms to answer these questions.
The Evaluation Landscape
The original mission of program evaluation in the human services and education
fields was to assist in improving the quality of social programs. However, for
several reasons, program evaluation has come to focus (both implicitly and
explicitly) much more on proving whether a program or initiative works, rather
than on improving programs. In our opinion, this has created an imbalance in
human service evaluation work — with a heavy emphasis on proving that
programs work through the use of quantitative, impact designs, and not enough
attention to more naturalistic, qualitative designs aimed at improving programs.
We discuss two reasons for this imbalance:
• the historical context of program evaluation in the U.S.; and
• the influence of the dominant research paradigm on human services
Historical Context of Evaluation in Human Services
Although human beings have been attempting to solve social problems using
some kind of rationale or evidence (e.g., evaluation) for centuries, program
evaluation in the United States began with the ambitious, federally funded social
programs of the Great Society initiative during the mid- to late-1960s. Resources
poured into these programs, but the complex problems they were attempting to
address did not disappear. The public grew more cautious, and there was
increasing pressure to provide evidence of the effectiveness of specific initiatives
in order to allocate limited resources.
During this period, "systematic evaluation [was] increasingly sought to guide
operations, to assure legislators and planners that they [were] proceeding on
sound lines and to make services responsive to their public" (Cronbach et al.,
1980, pg. 12). One lesson we learned from the significant investments made in the
1960s and '70s was that we didn't have the resources to solve all of our social
problems. We needed to target our investments. But to do this effectively, we
needed a basis for deciding where and how to invest. "Program evaluation as a
distinct field of professional practice was born of two lessons. . .: First, the realization
that there is not enough money to do all the things that need doing; and second,
even if there were enough money, it takes more than money to solve complex
human and social problems. As not everything can be done, there must be a basis for
deciding which things are worth doing. Enter evaluation" (Patton, 1997, p. 11).
Today, we are still influenced by this pressure to demonstrate the effectiveness
of our social programs in order to ensure funders, government officials, and the
public at large that their investments are worthwhile. In fact, since the years of
the Great Society, pressure to demonstrate the worth of social programs has
increased. Limited resources, increasingly complex and layered social problems,
the changing political climate, and a seeming shift in public opinion about the
extent to which government and other institutions should support
disadvantaged or vulnerable populations have shifted the balance even further
to an almost exclusive focus on accountability (prove it works), versus quality
(work to improve) .
The Scientific Method as the Dominant
A second factor leading to an emphasis on proving whether a social program
works is the influence of the scientific method on human-services evaluation.
When most people think about program evaluation, they think of complex
experimental designs with treatment and control groups where evaluators
measure the impact of programs based on statistically significant changes in
certain outcomes; for example, did the program lead to increases in income,
improved school performance, or health-status indicators, etc.?
The scientific method is based on hypothetico-deductive methodology. Simply
put, this means that researchers/evaluators test hypotheses about the impact of a
social initiative using statistical analysis techniques.
Perhaps because this way of conducting research is dominant in many highly
esteemed fields and because it is backed by rigorous and well-developed statistical
theories, it might dominate in social, educational, and human-services fields —
members of which often find themselves fighting for legitimacy. In addition, this
way of doing research and evaluation is well suited to answering the very
questions programs/initiatives have historically been most pressured to address:
Are they effective? Do they work?
The hypothetico-deductive, natural science model is designed to explain what
happened and show causal relationships between certain outcomes and the
"treatments" or services aimed at producing these outcomes. If designed and
conducted effectively, the experimental or quasi-experimental design can provide
important information about the particular impacts of the social program being
studied. Did the academic enrichment program lead to improved grades for students? Or
increased attendance? Ultimately, was it effective? However, many of the criteria
necessary to conduct these evaluations limit their usefulness to primarily single
intervention programs in fairly controlled environments. The natural science
research model is therefore ill equipped to help us understand complex,
comprehensive, and collaborative community initiatives.
Balancing the Call to Prove With the Need
Both of these factors — the historical growth in the pressure to demonstrate
effectiveness, and the dominance of a research philosophy or model that is
best suited to measure change — may have led many evaluators, practitioners,
government officials, and the public at large to think of program evaluation
as synonymous with demonstrating effectiveness or "proving" the worth of
programs. As a result, conventional evaluations have not addressed issues of
process, implementation, and improvement nearly as well. And they may very
well be negatively impacting the more complex, comprehensive community
initiatives (like many of those you operate in your communities) because
these initiatives are often ignored as unevaluatable, or evaluated in traditional
ways that do not come close to capturing the complex and often messy ways
in which these initiatives effect change (Connell, Kubisch, Schorr, Weiss,
1995; Schorr and Kubisch, 1995).
Clearly, demonstrating effectiveness and measuring impact are important and
valuable; yet we believe that it is equally important to focus on gathering
and analyzing data which will help us improve our social initiatives. In fact,
when the balance is shifted too far to a focus on measuring statistically
significant changes in quantifiable outcomes, we miss important parts of the
picture. This ultimately hinders our ability to understand the richness and
complexity of contemporary human-services programs — especially the
system change reform and comprehensive community initiatives which many
of you are attempting to implement.
Following are some of the many consequences of operating within a limited
Consequence 1. We begin to believe that there is only one way to do evaluation.
Most people (even those trained in research and evaluation methods) don't realize
that methods employed, such as an experimental design, are part of larger world
views or paradigms about research. These paradigms are based on different
• What is the nature of reality?
• How do we come to know something?
• What should be the relationship between the researcher/evaluator and the
participants in the evaluation process?
The dominant research paradigm described above (hypothetico-deductive),
derived from medical and other natural science disciplines, is one such paradigm,
but there are others. When one research paradigm begins to dominate a field, it
becomes easier to forget that other paradigms — which address different goals and
questions — also exist.
Patton explains the effect of forgetting paradigms in this way:
The very dominance of the hypothetico-deductive paradigm, with its
quantitative, experimental emphasis, appears to have cut off the great
majority of its practitioners from serious consideration of any alternative
evaluation research paradigm or methods. The label "research" [or
evaluation] has come to mean the equivalent of employing the
"scientific method" of working within the dominant paradigm (1997,
In other words, people begin to believe there is only one right way of doing
Consequence 2. We do not ask and examine equally important questions. We have
already discussed how the dominant research paradigm is suited for addressing
certain impact questions — the very questions that, historically, social programs
have been pressured to address. However, while it brings certain aspects into
focus, it misses other important dimensions of the program.
Here again, research paradigms and philosophies come into play. Even more
powerful than the notion that there are different paradigms with different
assumptions about the world and how it works (i.e., there is no one right way to
do evaluation) is how much our particular paradigms /assumptions influence the questions
we ask; what we think is important to know; the evaluation methods we use; the data we
collect; even the interpretations and conclusions we make.
If we are unaware that evaluation designs and results are based on a paradigm
or set of assumptions about how to do evaluation, it is more difficult to see
the questions and issues we are missing. These are questions and issues that
would come into focus only if we look at the program through the lens of
For example, conventional research methods don't tell us how and why programs
work, for whom, and in what circumstances, and don't adequately answer other
process and implementation questions. And yet, given the increasingly complex
social problems and situations we face today, and the increasingly complex social
initiatives and programs developed to solve these problems, these are important
questions to address.
Consequence 3. We come up short when attempting to evaluate complex system
change and comprehensive community initiatives. This may be the most dangerous
consequence of all. In a political and social climate of increasing reluctance to
support disadvantaged populations and skepticism about whether any social
program works, some of the most promising initiatives are being overlooked and
are in danger of being cut off. These are the system change and comprehensive
community change initiatives that many know from practice, experience, and
even common sense create real change in the lives of children, youth, and
However, these initiatives are complex and messy. They do not fit criteria for a
"good" quantitative impacts evaluation. There are no simple, uniform goals. There
is no standard intervention, or even standard participant/consumer. There is no
way to isolate the effects of the intervention because these initiatives focus on
integrating multiple interventions.
And since these initiatives are based on multi-source and multi-
perspective community collaborations, their goals and core
activities/services are constantly changing and evolving to meet the
needs and priorities of a variety of community stakeholders. In short,
these initiatives are "unevaluatable" using the dominant natural science
paradigm (Connell, Kubisch, Schorr, and Weiss, 1995).
What does this mean? It means that many of these initiatives are not evaluated at all,
making it difficult for communities to provide evidence that they are effective. It
means that others are evaluated using traditional methods. This leads either to a
narrowing of the project to fit the evaluation design (a problem, if what really works
is the breadth and multi-pronged nature of these initiatives), or to a traditional
impacts report which shows that the initiative had limited impact (because impacts
in these complex initiatives may occur over a much longer time period and because
many of the critical interim outcomes which are difficult to quantify are
overlooked). And it means that a great deal of resources are being wasted and very
little is being learned about how these initiatives really work and what their true
potential may be (Conn ell, Kubisch, Schorr, and Weiss, 1995).
Consequence 4. We lose sight of the fact that all evaluation work is political and
value laden. When we look at the impacts of a program by using the scientific
method only, we miss important contextual factors. This, coupled with the fact
that statistical theories can lull us into thinking that we are looking at the neutral
and objective truth about the initiative, can mask the fact that evaluation is a
political and value-laden process.
Virtually every phase of the evaluation process has political implications which
will affect the issues of focus, decisions made, how the outside world perceives
the project, and whose interests are advanced and whose are ignored. Evaluators
must therefore understand the implications of their actions during all phases of
the evaluation and must be sensitive to the concerns of the project director, staff,
clientele, and other stakeholders. This understanding requires ongoing dialogue
with all groups involved and a responsibility to fully represent the project
throughout the evaluation process.
Conflicting agendas, limited funds, different perspectives, or the lack of a
common knowledge base may lead to strained relationships between evaluators,
project directors, and staff. It is important to talk openly about how these factors
affect the evaluation process.
Recommendations for a Better Balance
So, how do we create a better balance, and design evaluations that not only help
demonstrate the effectiveness of the project, but also help us know how to
improve and strengthen it? The following recommendations form the foundation
of our evaluation philosophy:
Recommendation 1. Learn about and reflect on alternative paradigms and methods
that are appropriate to our work. As we discussed earlier, conducting research
-within a single paradigm makes it difficult for us to remember that it is still only
one view, and not the only legitimate way to conduct evaluation. There are
others — some developed within other disciplines such as anthropology, others
developed in reaction to the dominant paradigm. Since we cannot fully describe
these complex alternative paradigms here, we provide snapshots of a few to
stimulate your thinking.
Interpretivism / Constructivism: The interpretivist or constructivist paradigm has its
roots in anthropological traditions. Instead of focusing on explaining, this
paradigm focuses on understanding the phenomenon being studied through
ongoing and in-depth contact and relationships with those involved (e.g., in-
depth observations and interviewing). Relying on qualitative data and rich
description which comes from these close, ongoing relationships, the
interpretivist/constructivist paradigm's purpose is "the collection of holistic world
views, intact belief systems, and complex inner psychic and interpersonal states"
(Maxwell and Lincoln, 1990, p. 508). In other words, who are the people
involved in the program and what do the experiences mean to them? These
holistic accounts are often lost in conventional evaluations, which rely on
evaluator-determined categories of data collection, and do not focus on
The primary objective of evaluations based on the assumptions of
interpretivism/constructivism is to understand social programs from many
different perspectives. This paradigm focuses on answering questions about
process and implementation, and what the experiences have meant to those
involved. Therefore, it is well suited to helping us understand contextual factors
and the complexities of programs — and helping us make decisions about
improving project management and delivery.
Feminist Methods: Feminist researchers and practitioners (as well as many ethnic
and cultural groups, including African Americans and Hispanics), have long been
advocating for changes in research and evaluation based on two principles:
1. Historically, the experiences of girls, women, and minorities have been
left out or ignored because these experiences have not fit with
developing theories (theories constructed primarily from data on white,
middle-class males); and
2. Conventional methodologies, such as the superiority of objective vs.
subjective knowing, the distancing of the researcher/evaluator from
participants, and the assumptions of value -free, unbiased
research/evaluations have been seriously flawed.
Although encompassing a widely diverse set of assumptions and techniques,
feminist research methods have been described as "contextual, inclusive,
experiential, involved, socially relevant, multi-methodological, complete but not
necessarily replicable, open to the environment, and inclusive of emotions and
events as experiences" (Nielson, 1990, p. 6, from Reinharz, 1983).
Participatory Evaluation: One research method that is receiving increased
utilization in developing countries, and among many of our community-based
initiatives, is participatory evaluation, which is primarily concerned with the
following: (1) creating a more egalitarian process, where the evaluator's
perspective is given no more priority than other stakeholders, including program
participants; and (2) making the evaluation process and its results relevant and
useful to stakeholders for future actions. Participatory approaches attempt to be
practical, useful, and empowering to multiple stakeholders, and help to improve
program implementation and outcomes by actively engaging all stakeholders in
the evaluation process.
Tlieory -Based Evaluation: Another approach to evaluation is theory-based evaluation,
which has been applied both in the substance abuse area (Chen, 1990) and in the
evaluation of comprehensive community initiatives (Weiss, 1995). Theory-based
evaluation attempts to address the problems associated with evaluating
comprehensive, community-based initiatives and others not well suited to statistical
analysis of outcomes. Its underlying premise is that just because we cannot effectively
measure an initiative's ultimate outcomes statistically, it does not mean we cannot
learn anything about the initiative's effectiveness. In fact, proponents of theory-based
evaluation reason that, by combining outcome data with an understanding of the
process that led to those outcomes, we can learn a great deal about the program's
impact and its most influential factors (Schorr and Kubisch, 1995).
Theory-based evaluation starts with the premise that every social program is
based on a theory — some thought process about how and why it will work. This
theory can be either explicit or implicit. The key to understanding what really
matters about the program is through identifying this theory (Weiss, 1995). This
process is also known as developing a program logic model — or picture —
describing how the program works. Evaluators and staff can then use this theory
of how the initiative effects change to develop key interim outcomes (both for
the target population and for the collaborating agencies and organizations) that
will lead to ultimate long-term outcomes.
Documenting these interim outcomes (measured in both quantitative and
qualitative ways) provides multiple opportunities. It demonstrates whether or not
an initiative is on track. Tracking short-term achievements takes some of the
pressure off demonstrating long-term impacts in the first year or two, or having
very little to say about the initiative for several years. It allows staff to modify the
theory and the initiative based on what they are learning, thereby increasing the
potential for achieving long-term impacts. Ultimately, it allows staff to understand
and demonstrate effectiveness (to multiple stakeholders) in ways that make sense
for these types of complex initiatives.
This evaluation approach also provides a great deal of important information
about how to implement similar complex initiatives. What are the pitfalls? What
are the core elements? What were the lessons learned along the way?
Recommendation 2. Question the questions. Creating open environments where
different perspectives are valued will encourage reflection on which questions are
not being addressed and why. Perhaps these questions are hidden by the particular
paradigm at work. Perhaps they are not questions that are politically important to
those in more powerful positions. Perhaps they hint at potentially painful
experiences, not often spoken of or dealt with openly in our society. Encourage
staff and the evaluation team to continuously question the questions, and to ask
what is still missing. Additionally, review whether you are addressing the
• How does this program work?
• Why has it worked or not worked? For whom and in what circumstances?
• What was the process of development and implementation?
• What were the stumbling blocks faced along the way?
• What do the experiences mean to the people involved?
• How do these meanings relate to intended outcomes?
• What lessons have we learned about developing and implementing this
• How have contextual factors impacted the development, implementation,
success, and stumbling blocks of this program?
• What are the hard-to-measure impacts of this program (ones that cannot be
easily quantified)? How can we begin to effectively document these
Recommendation 3. Take action to deal with the effects of paradigms, politics, and
values. Perhaps more important than understanding all of the factors that can
impact the evaluation process is taking specific actions to deal with these issues,
so that you and your evaluation staff can achieve a fuller understanding of your
project and how and why it is working. The following tips can be used by
project directors and their evaluation staff to deal with the influence of
paradigms, politics, and values:
• Get inside the project — understand its roles, responsibilities, organizational
structure, history, and goals; and how politics, values, and paradigms affect the
project's implementation and impact.
• Create an environment where all stakeholders are encouraged to discuss
their values and philosophies.
• Challenge your assumptions. Constantly look for evidence that you are
• Ask other stakeholders for their perspectives on particular issues. Listen.
• Remember there may be multiple "right" answers.
• Maintain regular contact and provide feedback to stakeholders, both internal
and external to the project.
• Involve others in the process of evaluation and try to work through any
• Design specific strategies to air differences and grievances.
• Make the evaluation and its findings useful and accessible to project staff and
clients. Early feedback and a consultative relationship with stakeholders and
project staff leads to a greater willingness by staff to disclose important and
sensitive information to evaluators.
• Be sensitive to the feelings and rights of individuals.
• Create an atmosphere of openness to findings, with a commitment to
considering change and a willingness to learn.
Each of these areas may be addressed by providing relevant reading materials;
making formal or informal presentations; using frequent memos; using committees
composed of staff members, customers, or other stakeholders; setting interim goals
and celebrating achievements; encouraging flexibility; and sharing alternative
viewpoints. These tips will help you deal with political issues, bring multiple sets
of values, paradigms and philosophies onto the table for examination and more
informed decision making, and will help foster an open environment where it is
safe to talk honestly about both the strengths and weaknesses of the project.
Three Levels of Evaluation
Although the primary focus of this handbook is project-level evaluation, it is
important to understand the broad context of Kellogg Foundation evaluation.
We have developed three levels of evaluation. Together they maximize our
collective understanding and ability to strengthen individual and group projects
Three Levels of Evaluation
• Project-Level Evaluation
• Cluster Evaluation
• Programming and Policymaking Evaluation
Project-level evaluation is the evaluation that project directors are responsible for
locally. The project director, with appropriate staff and with input from board
members and other relevant stakeholders, determines the critical evaluation
questions, decides whether to use an internal evaluator or hire an external
consultant, and conducts and guides the project-level evaluation. The Foundation
provides assistance as needed. The primary goal of project-level evaluation is to improve
and strengthen Kelloggfunded projects.
Ultimately, project-level evaluation can be defined as the consistent, ongoing
collection and analysis of information for use in decision making.
Consistent Collection of Information
If the answers to your questions are to be reliable and believable to your project's
stakeholders, the evaluation must collect information in a consistent and
thoughtful way. This collection of information can involve individual interviews,
written surveys, focus groups, observation, or numerical information such as the
number of participants. While the methods used to collect information can and
should vary from project to project, the consistent collection of information
means having thought through what information you need, and having developed
a system for collecting and analyzing this information.
The key to collecting data is to collect it from multiple sources and
perspectives, and to use a variety of methods for collecting information. The
best evaluations engage an evaluation team to analyze, interpret, and build
consensus on the meaning of the data, and to reduce the likelihood of wrong
or invalid interpretations.
Use in Decision Making
Since there is no single, "best" approach to evaluation which can be used in all
situations, it is important to decide the purpose of the evaluation, the questions
you want to answer, and which methods will give you usable information that
you can trust. Even if you decide to hire an external consultant to assist with the
evaluation, you, your staff, and relevant stakeholders should play an active role in
addressing these questions. You know the project best, and ultimately you know
what you need. In addition, because you are one of the primary users of
evaluation information, and because the quality of your decisions depends on
good information, it is better to have "negative" information you can trust than
"positive" information in which you have little faith. Again, the purpose of
project-level evaluation is not just to prove, but also to improve.
People who manage innovative projects have enough to do without trying to
collect information that cannot be used by someone with a stake in the project.
By determining who will use the information you collect, what information they
are likely to want, and how they are going to use it, you can decide what
questions need to be answered through your evaluation.
Project-level evaluation should not be a stand-alone activity, nor should it occur
only at the end of a program. Project staff should think about how evaluation can
become an integrated part of the project, providing important information about
program management and service delivery decisions. Evaluation should be
ongoing and occur at every phase of a project's development, from preplanning
to start-up to implementation and even to expansion or replication phases. For
each of these phases, the most relevant questions to ask and the evaluation
activities may differ. What remains the same, however, is that evaluation assists
project staff, and community partners make effective decisions to continuously
strengthen and improve the initiative.
See Worksheet A on page 16 for highlights of some evaluation activities that
might be employed during different phases of project development.
Possible Project-Level Evaluation Activities
1 Assess needs and assets of target population/community.
' Specify goals and objectives of planned services/activities.
• Describe how planned services/activities will lead to goals.
' Identify what community resources will be needed and how they can be obtained.
1 Determine the match between project plans and community priorities.
' Obtain input from stakeholders.
1 Develop an overall evaluation strategy.
1 Determine underlying program assumptions.
' Develop a system for obtaining and presenting information to stakeholders.
' Assess feasibility of procedures given actual staff and funds.
' Assess the data that can be gathered from routine project activities.
1 Develop a data-collection system, if doing so will answer desired questions.
■ Collect baseline data on key outcome and implementation areas.
' Assess organizational processes or environmental factors which are inhibiting or promoting
1 Describe project and assess reasons for changes from original implementation plan.
1 Analyze feedback from staff and participants about successes/failures and use this information
to modify the project.
1 Provide information on short-term outcomes for stakeholders/decision makers.
' Use short-term outcome data to improve the project.
' Describe how you expect short-term outcomes to affect long-term outcomes.
' Continue to collect data on short- and long-term outcomes.
1 Assess assumptions about how and why program works; modify as needed.
' Share findings with community and with other projects.
1 Inform alternative funding sources about accomplishments.
' Continue to use evaluation to improve the project and to monitor outcomes.
1 Continue to share information with multiple stakeholders.
' Assess long-term impact and implementation lessons, and describe how and why program
' Assess project fit with other communities.
1 Determine critical elements of the project which are necessary for success.
' Highlight specific contextual factors which inhibited or facilitated project success.
1 As appropriate, develop strategies for sharing information with policymakers to make relevant
Increasingly, we have targeted our grantmaking by funding groups of projects
that address issues of particular importance to the Foundation. The primary
purpose for grouping similar projects together in "clusters" is to bring about
more policy or systemic change than would be possible in a single project or in
a series of unrelated projects. Cluster evaluation is a means of determining how
well the collection of projects fulfills the objective of systemic change. Projects
identified as part of a cluster are periodically brought together at networking
conferences to discuss issues of interest to project directors, cluster evaluators,
and the Foundation.
Project directors typically know prior to receiving a grant whether they will be
expected to participate in a cluster; but occasionally clusters are formed after
grants have been made. Therefore, it is important to be familiar with cluster
evaluation even if you are not currently participating in a cluster.
In general, we use the information collected through cluster evaluation to
enhance the effectiveness of grantmaking, clarify the strategies of major
programming initiatives, and inform public policy debates. Cluster evaluation is not
a substitute for project-level evaluation, nor do cluster evaluators "evaluate" projects. As
stated in the previous section, grantees have responsibility for evaluating their
own projects in relationship to their own objectives. Project-level evaluation is
focused on project development and outcomes related to the project
stakeholders. Cluster evaluation focuses on progress made toward achieving the
broad goals of a programming initiative. In short, cluster evaluation looks across a
group of projects to identify common threads and themes that, having cross-
confirmation, take on greater significance. Cluster evaluators provide feedback on
commonalties in program design, as well as innovative methodologies used by
projects during the life of the initiative. In addition, cluster evaluators are available
to provide technical assistance in evaluation to your project if you request it.
Any data collected by project staff that may be useful to the cluster evaluation
should be made available to the cluster evaluator. However, we do not want
cluster evaluation to become intrusive to projects nor to drive project-level
evaluation. Information is reported to the Foundation in an aggregate form that
prevents us from linking data to the individual clients or project participants.
Perhaps the most important aspect of cluster evaluation is that your project will
benefit from lessons learned by other similar projects. In turn, what you learn by
conducting your project can be of benefit to others.
Program and Policymaking Evaluation
Program and policymaking evaluation is the most macro form of evaluation at
the Foundation. Conducted by the Foundation's programming staff, it addresses
cross-cutting programming and policy questions, and utilizes information
gathered and synthesized from both project-level and cluster evaluation to make
effective decisions about program funding and support. This type of evaluation
also supports communities in effecting policy change at the local, state, and
Taken together, the three evaluation levels provide multiperspective, multisource,
multilevel data from which to strengthen and assess individual and groups of
projects. The interaction of professionals that occurs across all three levels of
evaluation encourages creative and innovative thinking about new ways to
evaluate programs and deliver information, which we hope will ultimately lead to
sustained positive change at the community level. At the same time, evaluation
information from multiple levels, when examined in holistic ways, helps the
Kellogg Foundation Board and staff members make effective and informed
decisions regarding our programming and policy work.
Blueprint for Conducting Project-Level Evaluation
Exploring the Three Components of Project-Level Evaluation
Program Logic Models
Planning and Implementing Project-Level Evaluation
Planning Steps: Preparing for an Evaluation
Identifying Stakeholders and Establishing an Evaluation Team
Developing Evaluation Questions
Budgeting for an Evaluation
Selecting an Evaluator
Implementation Steps: Designing and Conducting an Evaluation
Step 5: Determining Data-Collection Methods
Step 6: Collecting Data
Step 7: Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Utilization Steps: Communicating Findings and Utilizing Results
Step 8: Communicating Findings and Insights
Step 9: Utilizing the Process and Results of Evaluation
Knowing is not enough; we must apply.
Willing is not enough; we must do.
Blueprint for Conducting
Exploring the Three Components of Project-Level
Evaluation: Context, Implementation, and Outcome
All too often, conventional approaches to evaluation focus on examining only
the outcomes or the impact of a project without examining the environment in
which it operates or the processes involved in the project's development.
Although we agree that assessing short- and long-term outcomes is important
and necessary, such an exclusive focus on impacts leads us to overlook equally
important aspects of evaluation — including more sophisticated understandings
of how and why programs and services work, for whom they work, and in
By combining the following three components of evaluation developed by leading
practitioners and advocated by the Kellogg Foundation — context evaluation,
implementation evaluation, and outcome evaluation — project staff will be able to
address a broader array of important questions about the project. In our view, a
good project evaluation should:
• examine how the project functions within the economic, social, and political
environment of its community and project setting (context evaluation);
• help with the planning, setting up, and carrying out of a project, as well as
the documentation of the evolution of a project (implementation
• assess the short- and long-term results of the project (outcome evaluation).
Each of the evaluation components focuses on a different aspect of the project.
Therefore, evaluation plans should include all three components. How much each
component is emphasized, however, depends on the phase of project
development, the purpose of the evaluation, and the questions you are attempting
to address. Used together, these three components can improve project
effectiveness and promote future sustainability and growth.
Understanding the Project's Context
Every project is located within a community, and many are part of a larger
or umbrella organization. The characteristics of a community and umbrella
organization influence a project's plans, how the project functions, and the
ability to achieve the project goals. In general, a context evaluation asks:
What about our community and our umbrella organization hinders or helps us
achieve project goals? Which contextual factors have the greatest bearing on project
successes or stumbling blocks?
Potential Uses of Context Evaluation
Context evaluation can serve many purposes during the life of a project. Early
on, context evaluation might focus on:
• assessing the needs, assets, and resources of a target community in order to
plan relevant and effective interventions within the context of the
• identifying the political atmosphere and human services context of the
target area to increase the likelihood that chosen interventions will be
supported by current community leaders and local organizations.
These types of early evaluation activities often increase community participation,
provide motivation for networking among community agencies, and, at times,
promote new coalitions.
In later phases of project maturity, context evaluation may focus on:
• gathering contextual information to modify project plans and/or explain
past problems (e.g., slower than anticipated growth);
• identifying the political, social, and environmental strengths and weaknesses
of both the community and the project; and
• examining the impact of changing federal and state climates on project
implementation and success.
Without such information, it will be difficult to make informed decisions about
how to improve your project. Furthermore, if environmental barriers to project
implementation are understood, seemingly troubled projects might be deemed
successful based on the barriers they overcame.
Contextual evaluation is also critical when attempting to replicate programs and
services. Oftentimes, even "successful" programs are difficult to replicate because
the specific contextual factors (environmental, organizational, human, etc.) that
facilitated the program's success were not labeled and understood in the
Focusing a Context Evaluation
For any project, there are multiple contexts which are important to understand.
As we have described above, which one(s) to focus on will depend on the phase
of the project, the purpose of the evaluation, and the particular evaluation
questions you are addressing. Following are two examples of how contextual
evaluation can be utilized to improve your project.
Example 1: Community Needs Assessment
During the planning phase of a new program serving welfare mothers, a
context evaluation might focus on the demographics of welfare mothers in the
community and their access to, and opportunities for, services. In addition,
context evaluation questions would focus on the social, economic, and political
situation in the community, and of the welfare women as a subgroup within
the community. Using this type of information during project planning phases
helps to ensure that relevant and culturally sensitive program activities or
services are implemented.
A simple and effective way to begin the process of context evaluation during this
planning phase is through mapping community needs and assets. This process can
• identify existing community action groups and understand the history of
• identify existing formal, informal, and potential leaders;
• identify community needs and gaps in services;
• identify community strengths and opportunities;
• understand your target population (both needs and assets) in order to
improve, build, and secure project credibility within the community; and
• create a momentum for project activities by getting community input.
Mapping community needs and assets can also help determine the
appropriateness of project goals and provide baseline data for later outcome
evaluations. A formal needs assessment can be both time-consuming and
resource-intensive; most projects, however, have the capability to perform an
informal or simplified needs assessment.
Example 2: Organizational Assessment
A program that has been up and running for a year and facing difficulties in
continuing to serve its target population might focus on organizational
contextual factors particular to the program (e.g., leadership styles; staff
characteristics such as training, experience, and cultural competence;
organizational culture; mission; partner agencies) . Such contextual information,
when collected and analyzed carefully, can help staff identify stumbling blocks
and obstacles to program success and improvement. It helps us better understand
why something worked or didn't work, why some outcomes were achieved and
others were not.
Through an organizational assessment, project staff can examine the internal
dynamics of a project to see how these dynamics may be hindering or supporting
project success. Questions to be addressed might include:
•What are the values or environment of the project (internal) and its larger
institutional context (umbrella organization)? How are they the same? How
do differences in values impede project activities?
• What are the fiduciary, physical space, and other collaborative and
administrative relationships between the project and its umbrella institution?
How do they relate to project accomplishments or failures? For a proposed
activity, are these arrangements adequate?
•What is the structure and size of the project in relation to that of the
• How does the leadership and organizational structure of the project
influence its effectiveness? What is the complexity of the organizational
chart? Do organizational decision-making bodies impede or strengthen
ongoing or proposed activities?
•What are the characteristics of project staff and leadership? How are project
members recruited? What is the organizational culture?
•What resources (e.g., funding, staffing, organizational and/or institutional
support, expertise, and educational opportunities) are available to the project
and to the evaluation?
• To what extent are opportunities to participate in the evaluation process
available for people who have a stake in the project's outcome?
If an organizational assessment does not help to fully explain the project's
strengths and weaknesses in serving its target population, another contextual area
to examine might be changing federal and state climates and how these climates
may be impacting the community and project.
A Final Note: Examining the external and internal contextual environments of a
project provides the groundwork for implementation and outcome evaluation. It
helps to explain why a project has been implemented the way it has, and why
certain outcomes have been achieved and others have not. Evaluating the
multiple contexts of a project may also point to situations that limit a project's
ability to achieve anticipated outcomes, or lead to the realization that specific
interventions and their intended outcomes may be difficult to measure or to
attribute to the project itself.
Understanding How the Project Was Implemented
Implementation evaluation activities enhance the likelihood of success by providing
indications of what happened and why. Successful implementation of new
project activities typically involves a process of adapting the ideal plan to
local conditions, organizational dynamics, and programmatic uncertainties.
This process is often bumpy, and in the end, actual programs and services
often look different from original plans. Even well-planned projects need
to be fine-tuned in the first months of operation, and often information
needs to be continually analyzed to make improvements along the way.
Every project director has used implementation evaluation, whether or not
they have labeled it as such. Implementation evaluations focus on
examining the core activities undertaken to achieve project goals and
intended outcomes. Questions asked as part of an implementation
evaluation include: What are the critical components / activities of this project
(both explicit and implicit)? How do these components connect to the goals and
intended outcomes for this project? What aspects of the implementation process are
facilitating success or acting as stumbling blocks for the project?
Potential Uses of Implementation Evaluation
Implementation evaluation addresses a broad array of project elements. Some
potential purposes include:
identifying and maximizing strengths in development;
identifying and minimizing barriers to implementing activities;
determining if project goals match target population needs;
assessing whether available resources can sustain project activities;
measuring the performance and perceptions of the staff;
measuring the community's perceptions of the project;
determining the nature of interactions between staff and clients;
ascertaining the quality of services provided by the project;
documenting systemic change; and
monitoring clients' and other stakeholders' experiences with the project, and
their satisfaction with and utilization of project services.
Focusing an Implementation Evaluation
As with context evaluation, the focus of an implementation evaluation will vary
depending on the phase of the project, the purpose of the evaluation, and the
particular questions you are attempting to address. Following are three examples
of implementation evaluation.
Example 1: New Programs
An implementation evaluation designed for a new or rapidly changing
organization might focus on information that would assist decision makers in
documenting the project's evolution, and continually assessing whether
modifications and changes are connected to goals, relevant contextual factors,
and the needs of the target population. To help a project do this, the evaluator
must understand, from multiple perspectives, what is happening with the
project. How is it being implemented, and why have particular decisions been
made along the way? In short, to what extent does the project look and act
like the one originally planned? Are the differences between planned and
actual implementation based on what made sense for the clients and goals of
the project? How is the project working now and what additional changes
may be necessary?
Specific questions might include:
• What characteristics of the project implementation process have facilitated
or hindered project goals? (Include all relevant stakeholders in this
discussion, such as clients/participants, residents/consumers, staff,
administrators, board members, other agencies, and policymakers.)
•Which initial strategies or activities of the project are being implemented?
Which are not? Why or why not?
• How can those strategies or activities not successfully implemented be
modified or adapted to the realities of the project?
• Is the project reaching its intended audience? Why or why not? What
changes must be made to reach intended audiences more effectively?
• What lessons have been learned about the initial planned program design?
How should these lessons be utilized in continually revising the original
project plan? Do the changes in program design reflect these lessons or
other unrelated factors (e.g., personalities, organizational dynamics, etc.)?
How can we better connect program design changes to documented
Example 2: Established Programs
For a program that has been up and running for several years, the
implementation evaluation might be designed as a continuous monitoring,
feedback, and improvement loop. This type of continual monitoring provides
project staff with ongoing feedback to help them recognize which activities are
working and -which activities need modification or restructuring. Examples of
questions addressed in this implementation evaluation include:
• Which project operations work? Which aren't working? Why or why not?
•What project settings (facilities, scheduling of events, location, group size,
transportation arrangements, etc.) appear to be most appropriate and useful
for meeting the needs of clients?
• What strategies have been successful in encouraging client participation and
involvement? Which have been unsuccessful?
• How do the different project components interact and fit together to form a
coherent whole? Which project components are the most important to
• How effective is the organizational structure in supporting project
implementation? What changes need to be made?
Example 3: Piloting Future Programs
For a project director who is thinking about future growth opportunities, an
implementation evaluation might be designed to pilot new ideas and determine if
these ideas make sense and are achievable. This evaluation design might include
up-front data gathering from clients in order to delineate more effectively future
goals and plans based on still unmet needs or gaps in the services currently
provided. Specific questions for this implementation evaluation might include:
• What is unique about this project?
•What project strengths can we build upon to meet unmet needs?
• Where are the gaps in services /program activities? How can the project be
modified or expanded to meet still unmet needs?
• Can the project be effectively replicated? What are the critical
implementation elements? How might contextual factors impact replication?
A project implementation evaluation should include the following objectives:
Improve the effectiveness of current activities by helping initiate or modify initial
activities; provide support for maintaining the project over the long term; provide
insight into why certain goals are or are not being accomplished; and help project
leaders make decisions. In addition, implementation evaluations provide
documentation for funders about the progress of a project, and can be used for
developing solutions to encountered problems.
Evaluating project implementation is a vital source of information for
interpreting results and increasing the power and relevance of an outcome
evaluation. Knowing why a project achieves its goals is more important than just
knowing that it does. An outcome evaluation can tell you what impact your
program/service had on participants, organizations, or the community. An
implementation evaluation allows you to put this outcome data in the context
of what was actually done when carrying out the project. In fact, without
knowing exactly what was implemented and why, it is virtually impossible to
select valid effectiveness measures or show causal linkages between project
activities and outcomes.
Determining Project Outcomes
Outcome evaluation is another important feature of any comprehensive
evaluation plan. It assesses the short- and long-term results of a project and
seeks to measure the changes brought about by the project. Outcome
evaluation questions ask: Wliat are the critical outcomes you are trying to
achieve? What impact is the project having on its clients, its staff, its umbrella
organization, and its community? What unexpected impact has the project had?
Because projects often produce outcomes that were not listed as goals in
the original proposal, and because efforts at prevention, particularly in
complex, comprehensive, community-based initiatives, can be especially
difficult to measure, it is important to remain flexible when conducting an
outcome evaluation. Quality evaluations examine outcomes at multiple
levels of the project. These evaluations focus not only on the ultimate
outcomes expected, but also attempt to discover unanticipated or
important interim outcomes.
Potential Uses of Outcome Evaluation
Outcome evaluation can serve an important role during each phase of a project's
development. Early on, you might focus outcome evaluation on:
• determining what outcomes you expect or hope for from the project; and
• thinking through how individual participant/client outcomes connect to
specific program or system-level outcomes.
These types of early evaluation activities increase the likelihood that
implementation activities are linked to the outcomes you are trying to achieve,
and help staff and stakeholders stay focused on what changes you are really
attempting to make in participants' lives.
In later phases of project maturity, an effective outcome evaluation process is
• demonstrating the effectiveness of your project and making a case for its
continued funding or for expansion/replication;
• helping to answer questions about what works, for whom, and in what
circumstances, and how to improve program delivery and services; and
• determining which implementation activities and contextual factors are
supporting or hindering outcomes and overall program effectiveness.
In the following sections, we provide a range of information about outcome
evaluation, along with some of the latest thinking about evaluating project
outcomes, particularly for more complex, comprehensive, community-wide
Types of Outcomes
Each project is unique and is aimed at achieving a range of different outcomes.
The following provides a framework for thinking about the different levels of
outcome when developing your outcome evaluation plan.
Individual, Client-Focused Outcomes:
When people think about outcomes, they usually think about program goals. The
problem is that, often, program goals are stated in terms of service delivery or
system goals (e.g., reduce the number of women on welfare), rather than on clear
outcome statements about how clients' lives will improve as a result of the
program. Yet when we think about the purposes of social and human services
programs, we realize that the most important set of outcomes are individual
client/participant outcomes. By this, we mean, "What difference will this
program/ initiative make in the lives of those served?" When you sit down with
program staff to answer this question, it will become clear that "reducing the
number of women on welfare" is not a client-focused outcome; it is a program-
or system-focused outcome.
There are multiple ways to reduce the number of women on welfare (the stated
outcome), but not all are equally beneficial to clients. The program might focus
on quick-fix job placement for women into low-skill, low-paying jobs. However,
if what many clients need is a long-term skill -building and support program, this
method of "reducing the number of women on welfare" might not be the most
appropriate or most beneficial program for the clients served.
If we change the outcome statement to be client-focused, we see how it helps us
focus on and measure what is truly important to improving the lives of women
on welfare. For example, the primary individual-level outcome for this program
might be: "Clients will gain life and job skills adequate to succeed in their chosen
field," or "Clients will gain life and job skills necessary to be self-reliant and
The type of outcomes you may be attempting to achieve at the individual client
level might include changes in circumstances, status, quality of life or functioning,
attitude or behavior, knowledge, and skills. Some programs may focus on
maintenance or prevention as individual client outcomes.
Program and System-Level Outcomes:
Our emphasis on client-focused outcomes does not mean that we do not care
about program and system-level outcomes. You do need to think through what
outcomes you are trying to achieve for the program and for the broader system
(e.g., improved access to case management, expanded job placement alternatives,
strengthened interagency partnerships); however, these outcomes should be seen
as strategies for achieving ultimate client/participant outcomes. Once you have
determined individual client outcomes, then you can determine which specific
program and system-level outcomes will most effectively lead to your stated
client improvements. Program and system-level outcomes should connect to
individual client outcomes, and staff at all levels of the organization should
understand how they connect, so they do not lose sight of client-level outcomes
and focus on program outcomes, which are easier to measure and control.
Example: An initiative aimed at improving health-care systems by
strengthening local control and decision making, and restructuring how
services are financed and delivered, has as its core individual, client-
centered outcome: "improved health status for those living in the
community served." However, it quickly became clear to staff and key
stakeholders that the road to improved health status entailed critical
changes in health-care systems, processes, and decision making — system-
level goals or outcomes.
Specifically, the initiative focuses on two overarching system-level
outcomes to support and achieve the primary individual/client— centered
outcome of improved health status. These system-level outcomes include:
inclusive decision-making processes, and increased efficiency of the
health-care system. To achieve these system-level outcomes, the program
staff have worked to 1) establish an inclusive and accountable community
decision-making process for fundamental health-care system reform; 2)
achieve communitywide coverage through expansion of affordable
insurance coverage and enhanced access to needed health-care services;
and 3) develop a comprehensive, integrated delivery system elevating the
roles of health promotion, disease prevention, and primary care, and
integrating medical, health, and human services. These key objectives and
the activities associated with achieving them are linked directly to the
system-level goals of inclusive decision making and increased efficiency
of the health-care system.
However, program staff found that it was easy in the stress of day-to-day
work pressures to lose sight of the fact that the activities they were
involved in to achieve system-level outcomes were not ends in
themselves, but critical means to achieving the key client-level outcome
of improved health status. To address this issue, project leaders in one
community developed an effective method to assist staff and stakeholders
in keeping the connection between systems and client-centered
outcomes at the forefront of their minds. This method entailed
"listening" to the residents of the communities where they operated.
Program staff interviewed nearly 10,000 residents to gather input on how
to improve the health status of those living in that community. Staff then
linked these evaluation results to the system-level outcomes and activities
they were engaged in on a daily basis. In this way, they were able to
articulate clear connections between what they were doing at the system
level (improving decision-making processes and efficiency), and the
ultimate goal of improving the health status of community residents.
Broader Family or Community Outcomes:
It is also important to think more broadly about what an individual-level
outcome really means. Many programs are aimed at impacting families,
neighborhoods, and in some cases, whole communities. Besides individual
outcomes, you and your staff need to think through the family and community-
level outcomes you are trying to achieve — both interim and long-term. For
instance, family outcomes might include improved communication, increased
parent-child-school interactions, keeping children safe from abuse. Community
outcomes might include increased civic engagement and participation, decreased
violence, shifts in authority and responsibility from traditional institutions to
community-based agencies and community resident groups, or more intensive
collaboration among community agencies and institutions.
Impacts on Organizations
In addition to a project's external outcomes, there will also be internal effects —
both individual and institutional — which are important to understand and
document. Many times these organizational outcomes are linked to how
effectively the program can achieve individual client outcomes. They are also
important to understand in order to improve program management and
organizational effectiveness. Questions to consider in determining these
Impact on personnel:
How are the lives and career directions of project staff affected by the project?
What new directions, career options, enhanced perceptions, or improved skills
have the staff acquired?
Page 3 1
Impact on the institution/organization:
How is the home institution impacted? Does the presence of a project create
ripple effects in the organization, agency, school, or university housing it? Has the
organization altered its mission or the direction of its activities or the clientele
served as a result of funding? Are collaborations among institutions strengthened?
Developing and Implementing an Outcome Evaluation Process
As we described above, an important first step of any outcome evaluation process
is to help program staff and key stakeholders think through the different levels of
program outcomes, and understand the importance of starting with individual
client/participant outcomes rather than program or systems goals.
Once program staff and stakeholders have an understanding of outcome
evaluation and how it can be used, you and your evaluation team can address the
following questions which will facilitate the development of an outcome
1. Who are you going to serve?
2. What outcomes are you trying to achieve for your target population?
3. How will you measure whether you've achieved these outcomes?
4. What data will you collect and how will you collect it?
5. How will you use the results?
6. What are your performance targets?
(Framework based on Patton's work with Kellogg described in Utilization-Focused
Evaluation, 1997 Edition)
1. Who are you going to serve? Before you and your program staff can determine
individual client-level outcomes, you need to specify your target population. Who
are you going to serve? Who are your clients/participants? It is important to be as
specific as possible here. You may determine that you are serving several
subgroups within a particular target population. For instance, a program serving
women in poverty may find they need to break this into two distinct subgroups
with different needs — women in corrections and women on welfare.
If your program serves families, you may have an outcome statement for the
family as a unit, along with separate outcomes for parents and children. Here
again, you would need to list several subgroups of participants.
2. What outcomes are you trying to achieve? Once you have determined who you
are serving, you can begin to develop outcome statements. What specific changes
do you expect in your clients' lives? Again, these changes might include changes
in behavior, knowledge, skills, status, level of functioning, etc. The key is to
develop clear statements that directly relate to changes in individual lives.
3. How will you measure outcomes? In order to determine how effective a
program is, you will need to have some idea of how well outcomes are being
achieved. To do this, you will need ways to measure changes the program is
supposed to effect. This is another place where program staff and stakeholders can
lose sight of individual participant outcomes and begin to focus exclusively on
the criteria or indicators for measuring these outcomes.
Outcomes and indicators are often confused as one and the same, when they are
actually distinct concepts. Indicators are measurable approximations of the
outcomes you are attempting to achieve. For example, self-esteem, in and of
itself, is a difficult concept to measure. A score on the Coopersmith self-esteem
test is an indicator of a person's self-esteem level. Yet, it is important to remember
that the individual client-level outcome is not to increase participants' scores on
the Coopersmith, but to increase self-esteem. The Coopersmith test simply
becomes one way to measure self-esteem.
This program might also have constructed teacher assessments of a child's self-
esteem to be administered quarterly. Here the indicator has changed from a
standardized, norm-referenced test to a more open-ended, qualitative assessment
of self-esteem; however, the outcome remains the same — increased self-esteem.
4. What data will you collect and how will you collect it? The indicators you
select for each outcome will depend on your evaluation team's philosophical
perspective about what is the most accurate measure of your stated outcomes; the
resources available for data collection (some indicators are time- and labor-
intensive to administer and interpret, e.g., student portfolios vs. standardized
achievement tests); and privacy issues and how intrusive the data collection
methods are. Your team should also consider the current state of the measurement
field, reviewing the indicators, if any, that currently exist for the specific outcomes
you are attempting to measure. To date, little work has been completed to
establish clear, agreed-upon measures for the less concrete outcomes attempted by
comprehensive, community-based initiatives (e.g., changes in community power
structures; increased community participation, leadership development and
community building) (Connell, Kubisch, Schorr, Weiss, 1995).
Another common problem is that all too often programs start with this step — by
determining what can be measured. Program staff may then attempt to achieve
only those outcomes which they know how to measure or which are relatively
easy to measure. Since the field of measurement of human functioning will never
be able to provide an accurate and reliable measure for every outcome
(particularly more complex human feelings and states), and since program staff
and stakeholders often are knowledgeable about only a subset of existing
indicators, starting with measures is likely to limit the potential for the program
by excluding critical outcomes. The Kellogg Foundation believes it is important
to start with the overall goals and outcomes of the program, and then determine
how to go about measuring these outcomes. From our perspective, it is better to
have meaningful outcomes which are difficult to measure than to have easily measurable
outcomes which are not related to the core of a program that will make a difference in the
lives of those served.
5. How will you use results? Ultimately, you want to ensure that the findings
from your outcome evaluation process are useful. We suggest that you and your
evaluation team discuss how you will use the results of the evaluation process
from the beginning. Before you have even finalized data collection strategies,
think through how you will use different outcome data and what specific actions
you might take, depending on the findings. This will increase the likelihood that
you will focus on the critical outcomes, select the most accurate and meaningful
indicators, collect the most appropriate data, and analyze and interpret the data in
the most meaningful ways. In addition, it will increase the likelihood that you
and your staff will act on what you find, because you understood from the
beginning what you were collecting and why you were collecting it.
6. What are your performance targets? Think of performance targets as
benchmarks or progress indicators that specify the level of outcome attainment
you expect or hope for (e.g., the percentage of participants enrolled in
postsecondary education; how many grade-level increases in reading ability) .
Setting meaningful performance targets provides staff and stakeholders with
benchmarks to document progress toward achieving program outcomes. These
benchmarks help clarify and provide specificity about where you are headed and
whether you are succeeding.
It is often best to set performance targets based on past performance. Therefore,
you may want to wait until you have some baseline outcome data before
determining performance targets. However, if you do not have the luxury of
waiting to collect baseline data, you can set initial performance targets based on
levels attained in comparable or related programs.
Measuring the Impacts of System Change and Comprehensive
As discussed previously, we need to think differently about evaluating the impacts
of more complex system change and comprehensive community initiatives. In
these initiatives, implementation is difficult and long, and requires a collaborative,
evolutionary, flexible approach. We may not see ultimate outcomes for many
years, and many of the desired outcomes are difficult to measure using traditional
quantitative methodologies. And yet, these initiatives hold great promise for really
making a difference in our communities.
When evaluating these initiatives, then, we need to use innovative methods,
such as participatory and theory-based evaluation, to learn as much as we can
about how and why these programs work. By working together to develop the
key interim outcomes, we will be able to document better the progress of
these initiatives, and to understand better how they lead to the desired long-
There are two categories of interim outcomes you should think about
measuring. The first includes interim outcomes associated directly with your
target population. For example, interim outcomes associated with the long-term
outcome of getting off public assistance might include leaving abusive
relationships or conquering a drug problem.
The second category of interim outcomes includes changes in the project's or
community's capacity to achieve the long-term desired outcomes (Schorr and
Kubisch, 1995). For a project designed to increase the number of students going
to college, important interim outcomes might be the implementation of a new
professional development program to educate guidance counselors and teachers
about how to encourage and prepare students for college; increased student access
to financial aid and scholarship information; or an expansion in the number and
type of summer and after-school academic enrichment opportunities for students.
Measuring Impacts Through the Use of a Program Logic Model
One effective method for charting progress toward interim and long-term
outcomes is through the development and use of a program logic model. As we
discussed earlier, a program logic model is a picture of how your program
works — the theory and assumptions underlying the program. A program logic
model links outcomes (both short- and long-term) with program
activities/processes and the theoretical assumptions/principles of the program.
This model provides a roadmap of your program, highlighting how it is expected
to work, what activities need to come before others, and how desired outcomes
There are multiple benefits to the development and use of a program logic
model. First, there are program design benefits. By utilizing a program logic
model as part of the evaluation process, staff will be able to stay focused better
on outcomes; connect interim outcomes to long-term outcomes; link activities
and processes to desired outcomes; and keep underlying program assumptions
at the forefront of their minds. In short, the process of creating a program
logic model will clarify your thinking about the program, how it was
originally intended to work, and what adaptations may need to be made once
the program is operational.
Second, the program logic model provides a powerful base from which to
conduct ongoing evaluation of the program. It spells out how the program produces
desired outcomes. In this way, you can decide more systematically which pieces
of the program to study in determining whether or not your assumptions were
correct. A program logic model helps focus the evaluation on measuring each set
of events in the model to see what happens, what works, what doesn't work, and
for whom. You and your evaluation team will be able to discover where the
model breaks down or where it is failing to perform as originally conceptualized.
As we discussed, logic model or theory-based evaluation is also an effective
approach for evaluating complex initiatives with intangible outcomes (such as
increased community participation) or long-term outcomes that will not be
achieved for several years. A program logic model lays out the interim
outcomes and the more measurable outcomes on the way to long-term and
intangible outcomes. As a result, it provides an effective way to chart the
progress of more complex initiatives and make improvements along the way
based on new information.
Finally, there is value in the process of developing a logic model. The process is an
iterative one that requires stakeholders to work together to clarify the underlying
rationale for the program and the conditions under which success is most likely
to be achieved. Gaps in activities, expected outcomes, and theoretical assumptions
can be identified, resulting in changes being made based on consensus-building
and a logical process rather than on personalities, politics, or ideology. The clarity
of thinking that occurs from the process of building the model becomes an
important part of the overall success of the program. The model itself provides a
focal point for discussion. It can be used to explain the program to others and to
create a sense of ownership among the stakeholders.
Types of Program Logic Models:
Although logic models come in many shapes and sizes, three types of models
seem to be the most useful. One type is an outcomes model. This type displays
the interrelationships of goals and objectives. The emphasis is on short-term
objectives as a way to achieve long-term goals. An outcomes logic model might
be appropriate for program initiatives aimed at achieving longer-term or
intangible, hard-to-measure outcomes. By creating a logic model that makes the
connections between short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes, staff will
be able better to evaluate progress and program successes, and locate gaps and
weaknesses in program operations. See Figure 1, the Community Health
Partnership Program Logic Model, for an example of this type.
Another type of logic model is an activities model. This type links the various
activities together in a manner that indicates the process of program
implementation. Certain activities need to be in place before other activities can
occur. An activities logic model is appropriate for complex initiatives which
involve many layers of activities and inter-institutional partnerships. In these cases,
every stakeholder needs to have the big picture of how the activities and processes
pull together into a cohesive whole to achieve desired outcomes. It also provides
an effective means to document and benchmark progress as part of the evaluation
process. Which activities have been completed? Where did the program face
barriers? How successfully were activities completed? What additional activities
and processes were discovered along the way that are critical to program success?
An example of this type of program logic model can be seen in Figure 2, the
Calhoun County Health Improvement Program Logic Model.
The third type of logic model is the theory model. This model links theoretical
constructs together to explain the underlying assumptions of the program. This
model is also particularly appropriate for complex, multi-faceted initiatives aimed
at impacting multiple target populations (e.g., multiple members of a family,
whole communities, multiple institutions or community organizations within a
community, etc.). At the same time, a theory logic model is also effective for a
simpler program because of its ability to describe why the program is expected to
work as it does. See Figure 3, the Conceptual Model of Family Support, for an
example of this type.
Oftentimes, program staff will find that they will need to combine two or three
of these program logic models. See Figure 4, the Human Resource Management
for Information Systems Strategy Network, for an example of this hybrid.
Community Health Partnership Program Logic Model
Integrated health and
Accessible to all low-
income people who
partners to eliminate
barriers to services
Advocating for the health
needs of people &
/Grant is leveraged to'
10% increase in
client use of
20% increase in
10% decrease in
20% increase in
30% increase in
number of clients who
outcomes for unserved
individuals and families
throughout the county
All clients have
Unmet needs and
gaps in services are
Calhoun County Health Improvement Program Logic Model
1. Community leaders
committed to the
development of a
shared vision for
2. Broad base of
to systemic reform
of county health
care service delivery
3. Philosophy of
4. Neutral group to
integrate the reform
5. Neutral fiscal
support sufficient to
6. Technical expertise
on insurance, health
7. Strategic planning,
1. Establishing community
for program (B-3).
3. Establishing workgroups
to gather community
input and recommend
4. Conduct community
meetings to gain
vision and planning
5. Develop strategic plan
to achieve community
derived vision for
improved health status
6. Design and implement
1. Linkages formed
2. Structure and staff for
3. Implementation teams
4. Community vision for
systemic health care
reform drafted and
5. Policy changes —
health plans, data
identified to drive
planning and aid
6. Community funding
provided to support
network and other
7. Public support evident
for community derived
vision (C-4, 6).
1 . Development, pilot
testing, and promotion of
2. Build stakeholder capacity
to influence local policy
through recruitment and
3. Consumers, payers, and
providers sought and
encouraged to serve
together on CCHIP
working committees to
achieve common goals
4. Model development-
identified by research
5. Public relations,
marketing, and consumer
developed to support
6. Development of exchange
protocols that support
expansion of shared
7. Development of training
and support services to
facilitate service delivery
and growth (D3,4).
8. Contract with CCHIP to
9. Support provided for
community leadership of
10. Development of training
and evaluation activities
to build capacity of health
Continued on next page
Figure 2 (continued)
Calhoun County Health Improvement Program Logic Model
1. Shared decision-making
model disseminated to
local health care
organizations (E-1, 2).
2. Improved capacity of
to influence public policy
3. Improved communication
relations attributed to
project activity (E-2).
4. Strategic planning assists
stakeholders to achieve
their shared vision —
improved health status in
Calhoun County (E-3, 4).
5. Third party administrator
award guided by Health
Plan Purchasing Alliance
board criteria (E-4).
6. Healthplan contracts
solicited by the Health
Plan Purchasing Alliance
7. Information exchange
protocols and techno-
infrastructure have the
capacity to support
service delivery (E-4).
8. Training and support
contribute to Health
system expansion (E-4).
9. Community health
assessment data used to
community health care
decision making (E-4).
10. "811" primary care
management and referral
11. Increased local capacity
to integrate health
12. Neighborhood health
projects operational and
supported by the
1 . Local health care
use of shared decision
2. Research based
and influence molds
public policy to impact
community health status.
3. Payers and providers
resources and improved
4. Improved access/
coverage for the under
and uninsured in the
5. Increased number of
health plan contracts
6. Decentralization of
7. Health Information
leverage for health care
8. Infrastructure and
resources for sustaining
health assessment in
9. Increased integration of
health care delivery
10. Primary care providers
active in research-based
11. Increased access/
participation - health
promotion and primary
and provide ongoing
support for health and
primary care promotion.
13. Reduction in incidence
of targeted health
1. Inclusive, accountable
2. Community administrative
process which supports
local points for health data,
policy, advocacy, dispute
resolution, and resource
3. Community-wide coverage
with access to affordable
care within a community-
defined basic health
service plan with a
strategy to include the
under- and uninsured.
4. Community-based health
information systems which
monitoring, quality and
records, and consumer
5. Community health
assessment - utilizes
community health profiles
and indicators of access,
health status, system
resource performance and
6. Comprehensive integrated
health delivery system that
elevates the roles of health
prevention, and primary
care, integrates medical,
health, and human service
1 . Inclusive decision
efficiency of health
3. Improved health
Conceptual Model of Family Support
Family Characteristics Community Characteristics
Safe and Nurturing
Safe and Nurturing
Adoption of a
HRISM Strategy Network
Increase the ability
staff and public
the voice of
Building a Logic Model:
Logic models can be created in many different ways. The starting place could be
the elements of an existing program which are then organized into their logical
flow. For a new program that is in the planning phase, the starting place could be
the mission and long-term goals of the program. The intermediate objectives that
lead to those long-term goals are added to the model, followed by the short-term
outcomes that will result from those intermediate objectives. An activity logic
model can be built in the same way; long-range activities are linked to
intermediate and short-range activities.
The key to building any model is to prepare a working draft that can be refined
as the program develops. Most of a logic model's value is in the process of
creating, validating, and then modifying the model. In fact, an effective logic
model will be refined and changed many times throughout the evaluation process
as staff and stakeholders learn more about the program, how and why it works,
and how it is being operationalized. As you test different pieces of the model, you
will discover which activities are working and which are not. You may also
discover that some of your initial assumptions were wrong, resulting in necessary
model revisions to adapt it to current realities. You will learn from the model and
change your program accordingly; but you will also learn a great deal from
putting the program into practice, which will inform the model and provide you
with new benchmarks to measure. This iterative evaluation process will ultimately
lead to continuous improvements in the program and in staff's and other
stakeholders' understanding of the program and how and why it works.
A major outcome of importance to the Kellogg Foundation is sustainability.
Activities associated with the project — if not the project itself — may be sustained
through state and federal monies, funding from other foundations, private donors,
or adoption by larger organizations. How successfully projects are able to develop
a strategy for the transition from short-term funding sources to long-term
funding may determine their future existence. These are important outcomes for
In this context, attention is increasingly focused on the conditions surrounding
promising social programs. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests a
program's success over the long term is associated with the ability of key
stakeholders to change the conditions within which programs operate, thereby
creating an environment where programs can flourish. This ability to change the
conditions within which the program operates has oftentimes been more
important to its ultimate success than the program's level of innovation. Given
this, we need to pay attention to and document the social, political, cultural, and
economic conditions which support or hinder a program's growth and
sustainability, and identify effective strategies for creating supportive conditions
and changing difficult or hostile environments.
Replication and Dissemination
In isolation, a project needs only to sustain itself; but to have an impact in a larger
context, it needs to be understood well enough to replicate or to disseminate
important lessons learned. Projects can do this through publishing journal articles;
participating in networks of communities/projects grappling with similar issues;
presenting information locally, regionally, or nationally; advising similar projects;
or assisting in replicating the project in other communities. All of these activities
are also project outcomes.
Impact on Policy
In addition, we have an interest in working with grantees to influence or shape
policy at the local, state, or federal level. We understand that research and
evaluation rarely affects policy directly; instead policy is influenced by a complex
combination of facts, assumptions, ideology, and the personal interests and beliefs
of policymakers. At the same time, it is critical to proactively design and utilize
evaluation processes and results not only to improve practice, but also to improve
and change policies at multiple levels. It is only through connecting policy and
practice in meaningful ways that we can hope to make real and sustainable
change in the lives of children, youth, and families in our communities.
Creating policy change may seem like an impossible task; however, this goal is
often reached through collective action, networking, and collaboration. These
activities should be documented, as well as any responses to policy-change efforts.
The following provides some ideas for thinking about policy impacts when
designing and implementing evaluation:
Discuss policy goals upfront. An effective way to begin the process of impacting
policy is to build it into discussions about evaluation design and implementation
from the beginning. First, ensure that everyone involved in the evaluation
understands how policies and people in decision-making positions can make a
difference in people's lives. From here, you can discuss the specific types of policies
you are attempting to influence. Depending on the stage of your program
development and program goals, these policies might range from operating
policies in your own organization, to policies of larger systems within which you
work or with whom you partner (e.g. Juvenile justice, local welfare office), to
state and even national legislated policies. Continue discussions about policy
impacts by asking questions such as: What levels and types of policies are we
hoping to change? Who are we attempting to influence? What do they need to
hear? Think in advance about what their concerns are likely to be and build these
questions into your evaluation design so you can address these issues up front.
Finally, incorporate these policy goals into your evaluation design. In many cases,
the types of programmatic and organizational evaluation questions you are
attempting to address will have important policy aspects to them; so it will not
always mean an additional set of questions — perhaps just additional aspects of
existing evaluation questions.
Think about who your audience is. When communicating findings and insights,
think carefully about who your audience is. How will they respond to what you
have learned? What are their concerns likely to be? What questions will they ask?
Be ready to respond to these concerns and questions. Remember that most
policy and decision makers want simple and direct information which everyone
can understand. They want to understand not only what the problem is but also
how to improve people's lives. Stay away from abstract research jargon and
explain what you have learned about how and why your program works.
No matter who your audience, present evaluation findings and lessons in
compelling ways. This does not mean skewing data and misusing evaluation
results to create falsely positive marketing and public relations materials. There
are many far more compelling ways to present the findings of an evaluation than
with traditional research reports full of technical jargon and research-defined
categories and criteria. Present real-life stories and real issues. Your program and
the people served should be recognizable and well understood in any report or
presentation you give.
Communicate what you know to community members. An important part of
policy change is to get information out to the general public. Public attitudes and
beliefs have a profound impact on policy at all levels. Educating community
members about relevant issues — particularly in this technological age when they
are barraged -with so much shallow and incomplete information — will create
potentially powerful advocates and partners to help shape policy.
Program participants and graduates are another important group with whom to
share evaluation findings and lessons. In this way, you will be investing in their
knowledge and skill development and helping to amplify their voices. Participants
are often the most powerful advocates for policy changes because they can speak
from both their experience and from the lessons learned from evaluation
Be proactive. Within the legal limits mandated by federal laws, don't be afraid to
advocate based on what you are learning. Nonprofits can become very leery
when people start using words like "advocacy." Many evaluators also balk at the
idea of an advocacy role. However, there is nothing wrong with spreading the
word about what you know when it is backed up by evidence (both quantitative
and qualitative) garnered through sound evaluation processes. If evaluation is
conducted in a thoughtful, reflective, and careful way, you will learn much and
there will be much to tell. Tell it.
Be direct about what types of policies might be effective based on findings. Don't
leave it up to policymakers and legislators. They will more likely choose effective
long-term solutions, if evaluations demonstrate their worth.
Communicate about the evaluation process as well as the results. As previously
discussed, human and social services practitioners are struggling to find more
effective ways to evaluate complex social problems and the social programs
designed to address them. There is much to be learned and shared about the
evaluation process itself. Many policymakers and funders, as well as practitioners
and researchers, need to be educated about the strengths and weaknesses of
particular evaluation approaches. Often, programs find themselves pressured into
certain types of evaluation designs because of funder and policymaker beliefs
about how evaluation should be conducted (i.e., the traditional way). By
increasing the knowledge base about the strengths and limitations of different
evaluation philosophies and approaches, we will create a more supportive
environment for trying out new approaches.
Conducting an outcome evaluation will help you determine how well your
project is progressing in its effort to improve the well-being of your target
population. In addition, it will support the continued existence of your project by
helping current and potential funders and policymakers understand what your
program has achieved and how.
In the end, the results of an outcome evaluation should not be used simply to
justify the existence of a project; that is, to provide evidence that it worked.
Instead, it should be viewed as a source of important information which can
promote project development and growth. This points again to the importance of
conducting outcome evaluation in combination with context and
Page 46 Evaluation Handbook
Planning and Implementing Project-Level Evaluation
Understanding the Kellogg Foundation's philosophy, expectations, and key
evaluation components is only half of the formula for conducting effective
project-level evaluation. This section provides a blueprint which, though not a
comprehensive how-to manual, will take you through the process of planning
and implementing project-level evaluation as an integrated part of your project.
Three things become clear from the literature on evaluation and our experiences
with grantees across many human service areas. The first is that the process is
different for every community and every project. There is no one right way of doing
evaluation. Each project serves a different mix of clients, uses different service
delivery approaches, defines different outcomes, is at a different phase of
development, and faces different contextual issues. Therefore, the evaluation
process that you and your staff develop will depend in large part on local
conditions and circumstances.
The second is that there are certain critical elements or action steps along the way that
every project must address to ensure that effective evaluation strategies leading to real
improvements are developed and implemented.
The third is the continuity of the planning process. The steps described below are not
necessarily linear in practice. Although there is some order to how projects initially
address the steps, they are evolutionary in nature. Different aspects of each step
will come into play throughout the development and implementation of your
The next section discusses the key issues to consider for each step of the
blueprint, which we have structured into two phases: planning and
implementation. However, it is important to note that all planning steps do not
stop with the onset of implementation, but are active and ongoing throughout
implementation. Similarly, every implementation step requires up-front planning.
In addition, the descriptions of the action steps are not exhaustive. Each project
must bring together relevant stakeholders to discuss how to tailor the blueprint to
its particular situation and the questions it is asking.
Finally, although each action step is important on its own, they are all
interwoven. It is the well-conceived packaging of these steps into your own
"blueprint for action" that will result in an effective and useful evaluation.
Planning Steps: Preparing for an Evaluation
1 . Identifying Stakeholders and Establishing an Evaluation Team
2. Developing Evaluation Questions
3. Budgeting for an Evaluation
4. Selecting an Evaluator
Step 1: Identifying Stakeholders and Establishing an Evaluation
All evaluations have multiple stakeholders. A stakeholder is defined as any person
or group who has an interest in the project being evaluated or in the results of
the evaluation. Stakeholders include hinders, project staff and administrators,
project participants or customers, community leaders, collaborating agencies, and
others with a direct, or even indirect, interest in program effectiveness.
For example, stakeholders of a school-based program created to encourage the
development of interpersonal and conflict resolution skills of elementary students
might include the program's developers, participating teachers, the school board,
school administrators, parents, the participating children, taxpayers, hinders, and
yes, even the evaluators. It is important to remember that evaluators (whether
internal or external) are stakeholders, and not neutral third parties, as we so often
think. Evaluators have a vested interest in what they are doing and care about
doing it well.
To ensure that you have gathered multiple perspectives about the salient issues,
involve as many stakeholders as possible in initial evaluation discussions.
Otherwise, the evaluation is likely to be designed based on the needs and
interests of only a few stakeholders — usually the ones with the most power — and
may miss other important questions and issues of stakeholders who are not
included at the table.
Of course, involving every stakeholder may not be realistic. However, try to
consult with representatives from as many stakeholder groups as possible when
designing or redesigning the evaluation plan, and provide them with timely
results and feedback. We also encourage you to involve a manageable subset of
stakeholder representatives in an evaluation team or task force. This team should
come together, face-to-face if possible, to make ongoing decisions about the
evaluation. Continued use of this team throughout the evaluation process (not
just at the beginning of evaluation design) may help reduce project staff's
concerns about evaluation and increase the amount and reliability of information
collected. It will also increase the likelihood that recommendations will be
accepted and implemented.
Although this step may be time-consuming and fraught with the potential for
conflict, it is one well worth the time and effort. Involving many stakeholders
will help ensure that the evaluation process goes more smoothly: more people
are invested and willing to work hard to get the necessary information; project
staff concerns about evaluation are reduced; the information gathered is more
reliable and comes from different perspectives, thus forcing the team to think
through the meaning of contradictory information; and the recommendations
are likely to be accepted by a broader constituency and implemented more fully
and with less resistance.
Example: Program staff of a successful long-term initiative focused on
heightening public awareness about groundwater quality and drinking
water issues created an evaluation team consisting of the project director,
key staff members, and the local evaluator. Early in the process of
developing an evaluation plan, the team realized that it needed
information and input from additional "outside" stakeholders, particularly
representatives from local governments, such as staff from the local
utilities departments, building departments, planning commissioners, as
well as key elected officials. These stakeholders, although not directly
involved in the implementation of the project, were critical players in
terms of influencing policy related to groundwater quality, as well as
increasing awareness and problem solving with the community around
decision making that might affect groundwater drinking quality.
These stakeholders also provided a unique perspective to the team. They
were going to be the ones most immediately affected by project staff's
work, and were the ones best able to work with project staff to test
questions and determine strategic action steps. In addition, the evaluation
plan focused primarily on gathering information from these outside
stakeholders; therefore, representatives from these groups needed to be a
part of the discussions regarding data collection processes and structures.
What was the best way to reach local government representatives?
Initially, staff decided to expand the primary evaluation team to include
representatives from these additional stakeholder groups. However, it
quickly became apparent that including everyone would make the
evaluation team too large to operate effectively. In addition, calls to these
potential representatives revealed another problem. Although many of the
stakeholders contacted were interested in participating and providing
their input, they were concerned when they learned about the level of
effort and time commitment that would be required of them, given their
already busy schedules. Being public officials, most of them had many
roles to fill, including multiple committee appointments and other
meetings, which went beyond their regular work hours. It did not seem
feasible that these stakeholders could manage biweekly, or even monthly,
evaluation team meetings.
However, instead of giving up and foregoing the important input from
these stakeholders (as is often the case with project-level evaluations that
involve multiple "outside" stakeholders), project staff decided to create a
second ad hoc team made up of approximately 20 representatives from
these stakeholder groups. This team was brought together at certain
critical points in the process to provide feedback and input to the
primary evaluation team. Specifically, they were brought together two to
three times per year for roundtable discussions around particular
evaluation topics, and to provide input into next steps for the program
and its evaluation. An added benefit of these roundtables was that local
representatives from multiple communities were able to problem solve
together, learn from one another, and create a network of peers around
groundwater issues — strengthening the program itself, as well as the
In addition, the primary evaluation team called on five representatives
from these outside stakeholder groups on a more frequent basis for input
into evaluation and programmatic questions and issues. In this way, the
project was able to benefit from input from a wider variety of
perspectives, while making participation in the evaluation a manageable
process for all those involved.
Things to Remember . . .
• Gathering input from multiple stakeholders helps you remain aware
of the many levels of interest related to the project. You and your
evaluation team will be better prepared to counteract pressure from
particular stakeholders for quick fixes or a rush to judgment when
that is not what is best for the project.
• Stakeholders will have different, sometimes even contradictory,
interests and views. They also hold different levels of power. Project
directors have more power than staff. Legislators have more power
than primary-grade students. Your hinders have a particular kind of
power. Ask yourself: Which stakeholders are not being heard in this
process? Why not? Where can we build consensus and how can we
prioritize the issues?
• Evaluators are stakeholders, too. What are their interests? How might
this affect how the evaluation is designed, which questions are focused
on, and what interpretations are made?
Step 2: Developing Evaluation Questions
Drafting an evaluation plan will most likely require numerous meetings with the
evaluation team and other stakeholders. One of the first steps the team should
work through is setting the goals of the evaluation. The main concern at this
stage, and perhaps the biggest challenge, is to determine what questions need to
Again, questions will depend on the phase of project development, the particular
local circumstances, and the ultimate purpose of the evaluation. Critical
evaluation questions to address over the life of a project include, but are not
1. What do you want your project to accomplish?
2. How -will you know if you have accomplished your goals?
3. What activities will your project undertake to accomplish your goals?
4. What factors might help or hinder your ability to accomplish your goals?
5. What will you -want to tell others who are interested in your project?
Seek input on critical questions from a variety of sources. Some potential sources
for this initial question formation period include:
Commitment Letter — The Kellogg Foundation always sends a
commitment letter when a decision has been made to fund a project. This
letter usually contains a list of evaluation questions the Foundation would
like the project to address. Project evaluation should not be limited to
answering just these questions, however.
Project Director — A director can be an invaluable source of information
because he or she has probably been involved in project conceptualization,
proposal development, and project design and implementation, and is
therefore likely to have an overall grasp of the venture.
Project StarT/Volunteers — Staff members and volunteers may suggest
unique evaluation questions because they are involved in the day-to-day
operations of the project and have an inside perspective of the organization.
Project Clientele — Participants/consumers offer crucial perspectives for
the evaluation team because they are directly affected by project services.
They have insights into the project that no other source is likely to have.
Board of Directors/Advisory Boards/Other Project Leadership —
These groups often have a stake in the project and may identify issues they
want addressed in the evaluation process. They may request that certain
questions be answered in order to help them make decisions.
Community Leaders — Community leaders in business, social services, and
government can speak to issues underlying the conditions of the target
population. Because of their extensive involvement in the community, they
often are invaluable sources of information.
Collaborating Organizations — Organizations and agencies that are
collaborating with the grantee should always be involved in formulating
Project Proposal and Other Documents — The project proposal,
Foundation correspondence, project objectives and activities, minutes of
board and advisory group meetings, and other documents may be used to
formulate relevant evaluation questions.
Content-Relevant Literature and Expert Consultants — Relevant
literature and discussion with other professionals in the field can be potential
sources of information for evaluation teams.
Similar Programs — Evaluation questions can also be obtained from
directors and staff of other projects, especially when these projects are similar
Obviously you may not have access to all of these sources, nor will you be able
to explore all of the questions identified. Therefore, the next step is to have a
representative sample of stakeholders prioritize the list of potential questions to
determine which will be explored. One way to prioritize questions is to list
them clearly on a large sheet of paper so that they can be discussed easily in a
meeting. Using memos is another way to share the potential questions that
your team is considering.
Keep in mind that questions may need to be made more specific in order to be
answerable. For example, in order to address the broad question, "What has this
project done for participants?" you may need to ask several more specific
questions, such as:
• Has the project improved attendance at clinic visits?
• Has the project had an impact on the emotional needs of participants?
• Has the project decreased the number of teenage pregnancies in our
clientele in comparison to other teenagers in the area?
An effective way to narrow the possible field of evaluation questions is through
the development of a program logic model. As we have discussed throughout this
handbook, a program logic model describes how your program works. Often,
once you have built consensus on a program logic model, you will find that the
model provides you and your evaluation team with a focus for your evaluation.
The model helps clarify which variables are critical to achieving desired
outcomes. Given the vast array of questions you may want to answer about your
program, a program logic model helps narrow the field in a systematic way by
highlighting the connections between program components and outcomes, as
well as the assumptions underlying the program. You will be better able to address
questions such as: How is the program supposed to work? Where do the
assumptions in the model hold and where do they break down? Where are the
gaps or unrealistic assumptions in the model? Which pieces of the model seem to
be yielding the strongest impacts or relationships to one another? Which pieces
of the model are not being operationalized in practice? Are there key assumptions
that have not been embedded in the program that should be?
By organizing evaluation questions based on your program's logic model, you
will be better able to determine which questions to target in an evaluation. You
will also be better able to use what you find out to improve the program by
revising the model and then developing an action plan to operationalize these
changes in practice.
Things to Remember . . .
• The particular philosophy of evaluation/research that you and your
evaluation team members espouse will influence the questions you
ask. Ask yourself and team members why you are asking the questions
you are asking and what you might be missing.
• Different stakeholders will have different questions. Don't rely on one
or two people (external evaluator or hinder) to determine questions.
Seek input from as many perspectives as possible to get a full picture
before deciding on questions.
• There are many important questions to address. Stay focused on the
primary purpose for your evaluation activities at a certain point in
time and then work to prioritize which are the critical questions to
address. Since evaluation will become an ongoing part of project
management and delivery, you can periodically revisit your evaluation
goals and questions and revise them as necessary.
• Examine the values embedded in the questions being asked. Whose
values are they? How do other stakeholders, particularly project
participants, think and feel about this set of values? Are there different
or better questions the evaluation team members and other
stakeholders could build consensus around?
Step 3: Budgeting for an Evaluation
Conducting an evaluation requires an organization to invest valuable resources,
including time and money. The benefits of a well-planned, carefully conducted
evaluation outweigh its costs; therefore, the Kellogg Foundation expects that a
portion of your budget will be designated for evaluation. Generally, an
evaluation costs between 5 and 7 percent of a project's total budget. If, in your
initial proposal, you underestimated your evaluation costs, you should request
Although it is likely you will need to revise specific pieces of your evaluation
budget as you fill in the details of your design and begin implementation, you
should consider your evaluation budget as part of the up-front planning step.
Worthen and Sanders (1987) provide a useful framework for developing an
evaluation budget (see Worksheet B).You should modify this framework as
appropriate for your organization, or if you have other expenses that are not
listed. The categories of their framework include:
1 . Evaluation staff salary and benefits — The amount of time staff members
must spend on evaluation and the level of expertise needed to perform
particular evaluation tasks will affect costs.
2. Consultants — If your staff needs assistance in conducting the evaluation,
you will need to contract with external consultants. These consultants can
provide special expertise and/or different perspectives throughout the
process of evaluation.
3. Travel — Travel expenses for staff and/or evaluators vary from project to
project. Projects located far from their evaluators or projects with multiple
sites in different parts of the country may need a large travel budget. In
addition, all projects need to budget for transportation costs to Foundation
4. Communications — You will have to budget for communication costs, such
as postage, telephone calls, etc.
5. Printing and duplication — These costs cover preparation of data-collection
instruments, reports, and any other documents.
6. Printed materials — This category includes the costs of acquiring data-
collection instruments and library materials.
7. Supplies and equipment — This category covers the costs of specific
supplies and equipment (e.g., computers, packaged software) that must be
purchased or rented for the evaluation.
Salary and Benefits
Planning an Evaluation Budget
Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4
$ it it tit
9 9 9
Things to Remember . . .
• It is likely you will need to make changes to your budget. Build in a
mechanism for reviewing and revising your evaluation budget based
on what happens during the course of the evaluation.
• Often evaluation budgets do not provide enough resources for the
analysis and interpretation step. To ensure sufficient resources for
analysis and interpretation, think about how to save time and money
during the design, data-collection, and reporting phases.
• Qualitative evaluation studies based on interpretivist/constructivist
assumptions can be very effective at getting inside the program and
really understanding how and why it works. However, these studies
often are more costly to implement, since they require significant time
talking with and observing many people involved with the project.
Think about ways to utilize project staff, volunteers, and residents and
incorporate qualitative collection and analysis techniques into the day-
to-day operations of the project.
• Consider developing an evaluation time budget, as well as a
cost/resources budget. The time required for evaluation will vary
depending on the questions you are attempting to answer, the human
and financial resources you have available, as well as other external
factors. It is important to think through timing issues to ensure that
your evaluation is feasible and will provide you with accurate, reliable,
and useful information. Many projects fail to budget enough time for
an evaluation, and then find at the conclusion of the process that the
evaluation was not as helpful or useful as originally expected. A time
budget can go a long way to addressing these issues.
Step 4: Selecting an Evaluator
As noted earlier, we do not require that all projects have an independent
evaluator. In fact, this handbook is written to encourage and aid grantees in
conducting their own evaluations. Evaluation is a critical thinking process, and
successful project directors and staff do not readily delegate their thinking to
someone outside the project. Still, there are times when it is appropriate to utilize
people with evaluation expertise.
Types of Evaluators
In general, there are three types of evaluators: external evaluators, internal
evaluators, and internal evaluators with an external consultant. You must
determine what type of evaluator would be most beneficial to your project.
External evaluators are contracted from an outside agency or organization to
conduct the evaluation. These evaluators often are found at universities,
colleges, hospitals, consulting firms, or within the home institution of the
project. Because external evaluators maintain their positions with their
organizations, they generally have access to more resources than internal
evaluators (i.e., computer equipment, support staff, library materials, etc.). In
addition, they may have broader evaluation expertise than internal evaluators,
particularly if they specialize in program evaluation or have conducted
extensive research on your target population. External evaluators may also
bring a different perspective to the evaluation because they are not directly
affiliated with your project. However, this lack of affiliation can be a drawback.
External evaluators are not staff members; they may be detached from the
daily operations of the project, and thus have limited knowledge of the
project's needs and goals, as well as limited access to project activities.
A second option is to assign the responsibility for evaluation to a person
already on staff or to hire an evaluator to join your project. This internal
evaluator could serve as both an evaluator and a staff member with other
responsibilities. Because an internal evaluator works within the project, he or
she may be more familiar with the project and its staff and community
members, have access to organizational resources, and have more
opportunities for informal feedback with project stakeholders. However, an
internal evaluator may lack the outside perspective and technical skills of an
When hiring an internal evaluator, keep in mind that university degrees in
evaluation are not common; many people now working as evaluators have
previously held managerial/administrative roles or conducted applied social
research. Consider hiring those who do not label themselves as professional
evaluators, but who have conducted evaluation tasks for similar projects.
Internal Evaluator with an External Consultant:
A final option combines the qualities of both evaluator types. An internal staff
person conducts the evaluation, and an external consultant assists with the
technical aspects of the evaluation and helps gather specialized information.
With this combination, the evaluation can provide an external viewpoint
without losing the benefit of the internal evaluator's first-hand knowledge of
The Evaluator's Role
Whether you decide on an external or internal evaluator or some combination
of both, it is important to think through the evaluator's role. As the goals and
practices of the field of program evaluation have diversified, so too have
evaluators' roles and relationships with the programs they evaluate. (At the same
time, it is important to note that the idea of multiple evaluator roles is a
controversial one. Those operating within the traditional program evaluation
tenets still view an evaluator's role as narrowly confined to judging the merit or
worth of a program.)
From our view, the primary goals of evaluation are that stakeholders are
engaged, active participants in the process and that the evaluation process and
findings will be meaningful and useful to those ultimately responsible for
improving and assessing the program. In the end, this means that there is no
one way to do evaluation. Given that premise, the critical skills of an effective
evaluator include the ability to listen, negotiate, bring together multiple
perspectives, analyze the specific situation, and assist in developing a design
with the evaluation team that will lead to the most useful and important
information and final products.
With your staff and stakeholders, think through all of the potential evaluator
roles and relationships and determine which configuration makes the most
sense given your particular situation, the purpose of the evaluation, and the
questions you are attempting to address.
One important role to think through is the relationship between the evaluator
and primary stakeholders or the evaluation team. Questions to consider
include: Should this relationship be distant or highly interactive? How much
control should the evaluator have over the evaluation process as compared to
the stakeholders/evaluation team? How actively involved should key staff and
stakeholders be in the evaluation process?
Depending on the primary purpose of the evaluation and with whom the
evaluator is working most closely (funders vs. program staff vs. program
participants or community members), an evaluator might be considered a
consultant for program improvement, a team member with evaluation
expertise, a collaborator, an evaluation facilitator, an advocate for a cause, or a
synthesizer. If the evaluation purpose is to determine the worth or merit of a
program, you might look for an evaluator with methodological expertise and
experience. If the evaluation is focused on facilitating program improvements,
you might look for someone who has a good understanding of the program
and is reflective. If the primary goal of the evaluation is to design new
programs based on what works, an effective evaluator would need to be a
strong team player with analytical skills.
Experience tells us, however, that the most important overall characteristics to look for
in an evaluator are the ability to remain flexible and to problem solve.
Figure 5 on the following page provides a summary of some of the special
challenges programs may face and how these challenges affect an evaluator's role.
Challenges Requiring Special Evaluator Skills
1 . Highly controversial issue Facilitating different points of view Conflict-resolution skills
2. Highly visible program
Dealing with program publicity;
reporting findings in a media-circus
Public presentation skills
3. Highly volatile program
Adapting to rapid changes in
context, issues, and focus
Tolerance for ambiguity
4. Cross-cultural or
Including different perspectives,
values; being aware of cultural
blinders and biases
Skilled in understanding and
5. Team effort
Identifying and using individual
skills of team members; team-
6. Evaluation attacked
Calm; able to stay focused on
evidence and conclusions
7. Corrupt program
Resolving ethical issues/upholding
Integrity; clear ethical sense;
Adapted from Patton, 1997, Utilization-Focused Evaluation, p. 131.
How to Find an Evaluator
Perhaps the greatest frustration grantees have in the area of evaluation is finding
a qualified evaluator. Colleges and universities are often good sources, as are
many private firms listed under "Management Consultants" in telephone
directories. Your program director at the Kellogg Foundation can also suggest
evaluators.The Foundation's Evaluation Unit maintains a resource bank of
Before interviewing prospective evaluators, you should determine the
qualifications you would like an evaluator to have. You may require, for
example, someone with knowledge of the community or -who has experience
working with your target population. Others may desire an evaluator who has
experience in a specific subject matter or in conducting evaluations of a certain
type of project.
Worthen and Sanders (1987) suggest some basic qualifications that evaluators
should possess, including formal training in evaluation, other educational
experiences related to evaluation, a professional orientation (suited to the project's
orientation), previous performance of evaluation tasks, and personal
styles/characteristics that fit with your organization. The following page (see
Worksheet C) provides more detail on these basic qualifications.
Checklist for Selecting an Evaluator
To what extent does the formal training of the potential
evaluator qualify him/her to conduct evaluation studies?
(Consider major or minor degree specializations; specific
courses in evaluation methodology; whether the potential
evaluator has conducted applied research in a human service
To what extent does the previous evaluation experience of
the potential evaluator qualify him/her to conduct
evaluation studies? (Consider items such as length of
experience; relevance of experience.)
3. To what extent is the professional orientation of the
potential evaluator a good match for the evaluation approach
required? (Consider items such as philosophical and
4. To what extent does the previous performance of the
potential evaluator qualify him/her to conduct evaluation
studies for your project? What prior experience does she or
he have in similar settings? (Look at work samples or
To what extent are the personal styles and characteristics
of the potential evaluator acceptable? (Consider such
items as honesty, character, interpersonal communication
skills, personal mannerisms, ability to resolve conflicts,
Based on the questions above, to what extent is the potential
evaluator qualified and acceptable to conduct the evaluation?
Evaluator appears to be:
(Check one for each item)
Not WeU Qualified
if Qualified or
When to Hire an Evaluator
While there is no "best" time to hire an evaluator, experience has shown that
successful projects hire evaluators sooner rather than later. Ideally, evaluators can
assist as early as the proposal- writing stage. If this is not possible, you should try
to hire your evaluator before services are provided, or at the latest, during the first
few months of the project. Never wait until your first annual report to the
Foundation is due.
Contractual arrangements for hiring an evaluator vary from project to project. In
many cases, the evaluator is already an employee of the project. Other projects
decide to hire an evaluator as a part-time or full-time employee, and provide a
salary and benefits comparable to other employees in the organization.
It is not uncommon for our grantees to develop a contract with an external
consultant who works either as an individual or as part of an organization.
Contracting with a consultant is easier for projects to administer since they do
not have to provide benefits or withhold income taxes. However, contracts also
allow for the least control over the direction of the evaluation.
Many grantees develop a Request for Proposals (RFP) and solicit written bids
from several potential consultants. These bids, as well as the consultants'
qualifications, are then considered by project staff when selecting an evaluator. A
written, signed contract should be executed before the consultant begins working
for your project. Your organization might have very specific rules about the
bidding and contract process, including who is authorized to sign contracts on
your organization's behalf. Be sure to familiarize yourself with your organization's
policy before developing an RFP.
Evaluation consultants can be paid in a variety of ways; this is something you
need to negotiate with your consultant before a contract is signed. Small
consulting contracts are sometimes paid in one lump sum at the end of a contract
or when the final evaluation report is submitted. Larger contracts are often paid
in monthly installments upon the consultant's submission of a detailed time log.
Working as an Evaluation Team
Remember that "when developing and implementing an evaluation, it is helpful
to work as a team with staff, relevant stakeholders, and the evaluator. Through
your combined efforts and expertise, a well-planned evaluation can emerge, and it
will not be a mysterious process that only the evaluator understands. One way to
ensure the success of this team effort is to communicate with each other in clear
and straightforward language (no jargon), in an atmosphere that is open to new
ideas and respectful of alternative viewpoints. Finally, you should maintain contact
on a regular basis and develop a system for settling differences and grievances.
While you do not have to agree on all or most evaluation matters, open discussions
and a feeling of camaraderie should exist.
Example 1: A program designed to provide educational services to
families and children in an economically disadvantaged urban
community was piloted through a multi-institutional partnership,
including several African- American churches, health centers, and
educational providers. In selecting an evaluator, staff from the partner
agencies were concerned about the characteristics and background of the
person they would eventually hire. They were operating their program
within a primarily African-American community, and felt that African
Americans and their communities had been exploited within the
traditional research communities. Therefore, they were skeptical of
traditional avenues for finding evaluators, such as universities, research
organizations, and private consulting firms.
In addition, their program was centered within the African-American
church and was focused on the importance of spirituality to a fulfilling
and self-sufficient life. To this end, they wanted an evaluator who was
sensitive to the nuances and meaning of African-American spirituality
and the church. Without this familiarity, program staff felt the evaluator
would miss critical parts of the program's story or misunderstand aspects
of the program or its impact. In addition, they wanted an evaluator with
the methodological expertise to help them determine an effective way to
measure spirituality without losing its very essence.
Given these concerns, staff developed explicit criteria with which to
assess their potential evaluator candidates. Specifically, they looked for
candidates who had one or more of the following characteristics:
• background/coursework with African-American researchers and
practitioners who have argued for changes in how research and
evaluation work is conducted in African-American communities;
• experience and a depth of understanding of African- American
spirituality and the African-American church;
• a developmental and participatory approach that would encourage
and support active participation of staff and participants in the
evaluation design; and
• a strong methodological background, particularly around developing
effective and innovative ways to measure intangible goals, such as
As this example illustrates, many programs will have additional
characteristics (besides those listed in this section) that they are looking
for in an evaluator, given the specific type of program or participants
served. Program staff and key stakeholders should feel free to explicitly
determine these criteria in order to find the evaluator who is the best fit
for the job. In some cases, it might mean hiring a team of evaluators,
each with a different set of important characteristics. In other cases, it
might make sense to couple an outside evaluator with an internal staff
person, who has important perspectives about the clients being served,
the community where the program operates, or the theories/assumptions
upon which the program design is based. This is one of the reasons why
we advocate that any program evaluator hired should work as part of a
broader evaluation team made up of key staff and stakeholders. This will
ensure that many perspectives are brought to bear on what is known
about the program and what actions are taken based on this knowledge.
Example 2: In another example, an organization serving economically
disadvantaged women hired an outside evaluator to evaluate the early
stages of an innovative program for women living in poverty, being
piloted in three communities. Not having a great deal of expertise on
evaluation design at this time, the director and key staff hired the
evaluators based primarily on their expertise in evaluation methods.
For several reasons, the relationship failed and the evaluation was not
useful to project staff or other key stakeholders. The primary reason for
the unsuccessful evaluation seemed rooted in the fact that project staff
did not feel the evaluators hired understood how to work effectively
with the disadvantaged women in the program. In addition, staff felt the
evaluators had markedly different perspectives or values from staff about
what constituted success or a positive outcome, and what was considered
important to document. For example, the evaluators defined a positive
outcome as securing employment where income taxes were withheld,
while seeming to ignore outcomes the staff felt were critical, such as
increased sense of self, self-esteem, coping and problem-solving skills, etc.
At the same time, project staff did not feel empowered or knowledgeable
enough about the technical aspects of evaluation to effectively make the
case for why the evaluation would not yield useful information.
In addition, project staff did not understand their potential role in
determining the purpose and goals of the evaluation, as well as defining
the evaluators' roles. They assumed that this was the evaluators' job. Since
the evaluators hired had also always assumed it was an evaluator's job to
design the evaluation and define roles, roles and expectations were never
The evaluators hired had expertise in traditional survey research and
impact studies, and so assumed their job was to judge the merit or worth
of the program through traditional paper-pencil surveys and follow-up
telephone interviews. Without an evaluation team where staff and other
key stakeholders were empowered to contribute and shape the evaluation,
critical information about the clients being served was never utilized.
Ultimately, this impacted the credibility and usefulness of the evaluation
results. For example, many of the women in the program lied on the
survey in very obvious ways (e.g., noting they were not on welfare when,
in fact, they were). Staff had been concerned that this would be a likely
scenario on a paper-pencil survey, given the women's distrust of unknown
forms they did not understand for people they did not know. Such
experiences had almost always meant bad news in their lives.
Staff also knew that many of the women in the program did not have
telephones in their homes and thus, follow-up phone interviews — an
important second phase of data collection — were not going to be an
effective means to collect information. However, because the staff and
evaluators were not working together on an evaluation team, none of
this information was utilized and acted on during the evaluation.
Finally, staff, who were very dedicated to the women being served and
sensitive to the multiple barriers and difficulties they had faced, began to
resent the evaluators for their seeming lack of sensitivity to the situations
of these women, and how this evaluation might feel to them — cold and
impersonal. The relationship quickly deteriorated, and when the report
was finally completed, most staff members and participants were
disappointed. They felt that the most profound aspects of the program
were not addressed in the report, and that in many ways, the program
and the women were unrecognizable. One staff member put it this way,
"I didn't even see our program in this report. Or the women. Or really
what the women got out of the program. None of that was in there."
In the second year of the program, with a chance to hire a new
evaluator, staff members regrouped and decided the most important
characteristic to look for in an evaluator was someone who had values
and a philosophy that matched that of the organization. They also wanted
to hire an evaluator who was as much an advocate for the cause of
women in poverty as they were. Finally they wanted to ensure that this
evaluator would treat the women served with the same high level of
respect and care that each program staff person and volunteer did.
Two years later, working with an outside evaluation team with feminist
and developmental evaluation principles, program staff felt much more
positively about the role evaluation can play. They have also been
proactive about determining the evaluators' roles as that of developmental
consultants working with them to make continuous improvements, rather
than independent judges of the merit or worth of their program.
Things to Remember . . .
• When hiring an external evaluator, consider his or her philosophical
assumptions about evaluation and how appropriate they are to
addressing the questions you want answered. In addition, invite
finalists to meet project staff and others with whom they will be
working closely to see -who best fits with individual styles and your
• An important part of an evaluator's job (internal or external) is to
assist in building the skills, knowledge, and abilities of other staff and
stakeholders. It is better to have an evaluator who has spent time
working with staff to integrate evaluation activities into day-to-day
project management and delivery, than to have one who has
conducted a perfectly constructed evaluation with strong
recommendations that no one uses and with no one able to continue
• Think of evaluation as everyone's responsibility. Be careful not to
delegate all evaluation decision making to your evaluator. Stay
involved and encourage teamwork.
Implementation Steps: Designing and Conducting an
5. Determining Data-Collection Methods
6. Collecting Data
7. Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Evaluations must be carefully designed if they are to strengthen project activities.
Evaluation designs that are too rigid, for example, can inhibit experimentation
and risk taking, keeping staff from discovering more successful project activities
and strategies. On the other hand, an evaluation design that is not carefully
constructed can mask inherent biases and values; waste valuable resources
gathering data that do not address important evaluation questions; or lead to
inaccurate or invalid interpretations of data.
Following are three critical points to keep in mind throughout every phase of
Create a flexible and responsive design. The evaluation design should avoid
procedures that require inhibiting controls. Rather, the design should include
more naturalistic and responsive procedures that permit redirection and revision
You can maintain a flexible and responsive method of evaluation by:
• designing an evaluation that "fits" the needs of the target populations and
• gathering data relevant to specific questions and project needs;
• revising evaluation questions and plans as project conditions change (e.g.,
budget becomes inadequate, staff members leave, it becomes obvious a
question cannot be answered at this stage of the project);
• being sensitive to cultural issues in the community;
• knowing what resources are available for evaluation and requesting
additional resources if necessary;
• understanding the existing capacity of the project (e.g., can project staff
spend 30 minutes each day completing forms that document their activities
and perceptions of the project?); and
• realizing the capabilities and limitations of existing technologies, and
allowing time to deal with unforeseen problems.
Collect and analyze information from multiple perspectives. Our grantees grapple
with complex social problems from a variety of cultural and social perspectives.
Thus, the evaluation must be carefully designed to incorporate differing
stakeholders' viewpoints, values, beliefs, needs, and interests. An agricultural
project, for example, may produce noteworthy economic benefits, but have a
negative impact on family and social culture. If you evaluated the impact of this
project based only on an economic perspective, it would be deemed a success.
However, is this a complete and accurate picture of the project?
Always return to your evaluation questions. Your evaluation questions (along
with your ultimate purpose and goals) are critical to determining effective
design. Too often, evaluation teams focus on the information and methods to
collect information, and lose sight of the questions they are attempting to
address. The more closely you link your evaluation design to your highest
priority questions, the more likely you will effectively address your questions.
Without this link, you risk collecting a great deal of information without
shedding any light on the questions you want to answer.
Step 5: Determining Data-Collection Methods
The Foundation encourages the use of multiple evaluation methods, so projects
should approach evaluation from a variety of perspectives. Just as no single
treatment/program design can solve complex social problems, no single
evaluation method can document and explain the complexity and richness of a
project. Evaluation designs should incorporate both qualitative and quantitative data-
collection methods whenever possible.
After deciding on the questions to address, you will need to decide what
information is required to answer these questions, from whom and how the
information can best be obtained. You will also need to decide how the
information collected should be analyzed and used. Making these decisions
early in the planning process will reduce the risk of collecting irrelevant
information. While planning, remember to keep your design simple, flexible, and
responsive to the changing needs of the project. Focus on the project-specific
appropriateness of data-collection methods, rather than on blind adherence to
the evaluation design. By staying focused on the specific questions you want to
address, you will make better decisions about what methods to use.
There are many different data-collection methods to choose from, including
observation, interviews, written questionnaires, tests and assessments, and
document review. (These are described in detail later in this section.) When
deciding on which methods to use, consider the following four points:
1. Resources available for evaluation tasks:
Before devising an evaluation plan that requires a large portion of the project
budget (more than 15 percent) and significant staff time, determine the resources
available, and design your evaluation accordingly. By the same token, if you have
budgeted less than 7 to 10 percent of your overall project budget for evaluation
costs, you may consider requesting additional funds. Calculating the cost of
several data-collection methods that address the same questions, and employing a
good mix of methods, adequately thought out, can help stretch limited funds.
2. Sensitivity to the respondents /participants in the project:
Does the evaluation plan take into consideration different cultural perspectives of
project participants and the evaluation team? For example, if half of the target
population speaks only Spanish, do plans include printing client satisfaction
surveys in both English and Spanish? Do you have evaluation staff fluent in
Spanish to interpret the responses? Similarly, if your target population has a low
level of educational attainment, it would be inappropriate to plan a large mailed
survey that clients might find difficult to read and understand.
How credible 'will your evaluation be as a result of the methods that you have
chosen? Would alternative methods be more credible and/or reliable, while still
being cost effective? When deciding between various methods and instruments,
ask the following questions:
• Is the instrument valid? In other words, does it measure what it claims to
• How reliable is the measuring instrument? Will it provide the same
answers even if it is administered at different times or in different places?
• Are the methods and instruments suitable for the population being studied
and the problems being assessed?
• Can the methods and instruments detect salient issues, meaningful changes,
and various outcomes of the project?
• What expertise is needed to carry out your evaluation plan? Is it available
from your staff or consultants?
Increased credibility can also be accomplished by using more than one method,
because the evaluator can then compare and confirm findings.
A final note on credibility: Earlier, we discussed the dominance of quantitative,
impact evaluation designs. Many researchers, policymakers, funders, and other
stakeholders may doubt the credibility of evaluations that are based on alternative
paradigms (such as feminist, participatory, or constructivist models) . For these
types of evaluations, an important job of the evaluation team may be to educate
stakeholders about the credibility of these evaluation designs and their
effectiveness in addressing certain critical questions related to program success.
4. Importance of the information:
Don't forget to consider the importance of each piece of information you plan
to collect, both to the overall evaluation and to the stakeholders. Some types of
information are more difficult and costly to gather than others. By deciding what
information is most useful, "wasted energy and resources can be minimized.
Quantitative Versus Qualitative Methods
Most evaluations deal to some extent with quantitative information: things that
can be counted and measured. For example, your evaluation may count the
number of people involved in a project activity, the number of products or
services provided, and the amount of material resources available or required.
Other projects may measure the number of infant deaths in a community, the
percentage of community board members who are minorities, the percentage of
students who drop out of school, or the number of community residents living
below the poverty line.
Qualitative information can be used to describe how your project functions and
what it may mean to the people involved. A qualitative analysis may hold greater
value than quantitative information because it provides a context for the project,
and it may mean more to the project director who must make recommendations
for improvement. Because qualitative information is full of people's feelings, it
may give outside audiences a real understanding of the difference your project
actually makes in the lives of people.
Project success depends, in part, on adequately considering hard-to-measure
factors. For example, one may discover through quantitative methods that many
households in a poor community are headed by single mothers. However, if one
is unaware of the relationships among these households (e.g., cooperative child-
care arrangements, sharing resources, etc.), or the financial contributions made by
male relatives, the importance of this information as an indicator of health status
can easily be exaggerated. In other words, qualitative techniques, such as in-depth
interviews and participant observation, can help the evaluator understand the
context of a project. The context sets the framework for a meaningful
understanding of other quantitative data (numbers, ratios, or percentages).
Determining the best way to collect data can be difficult. Following is a brief
summary of principal methods for collecting data. Each describes the value and
purpose of the method, types of information the method may collect, and
includes an example of how the method could be used in combination with
other methods. It is important to note that descriptions are not exhaustive, nor
do we include summaries of all data-collection methods.
One way to collect information is to observe the activities of project staff and
participants. Observation is especially useful when conducting context and
implementation evaluation because it may indicate strengths and weaknesses in
the operations of your project, and may enable you to offer suggestions for
Information gathered through observation will allow you to:
• formulate questions -which can be posed in subsequent interviews;
• examine the project's physical and social setting, staff and clientele
characteristics, group dynamics, and formal and informal activities;
• become aware of aspects of the project that may not be consciously
recognized by participants or staff;
• learn about topics that program staff or participants are unwilling to discuss; and
• observe how project activities change and evolve over time.
Despite its value as a strategy for data collection, observation has limited
usefulness in certain situations. For example, observing certain events, such as
medical consultations, would be inappropriate if the observation violates the
confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship. Other types of observation,
although legal, could violate cultural values or social norms. For example, a male
evaluator of a project serving pregnant women should not intrude visibly on
program activities if his presence would be disruptive. If in doubt, it is a good
idea for the evaluator to talk with the project director about those situations he
or she would like to observe.
An evaluator should also recognize that even the most passive, unobtrusive
observer is likely to affect the events under observation. Just because you observe
it, do not assume that you are witnessing an event in its "natural" state.
With these considerations in mind, here are a few tips:
1. Figure out how observation can be used to complement or
corroborate the data you receive from other sources (e.g., surveys,
interviews, focus groups). Establish goals for the observation, but be
willing to modify them on site. You may even want to write some
questions to guide your observations, such as: How do participants
react to the project environment? Do they feel secure? Are staff
members treated as equals? How do they address one another?
2. Be practical. If your time is limited and the project you are evaluating
is large or scattered over several sites, you will not be able to observe
everything. Decide what is most important or what cannot be learned
from other data sources and concentrate on these areas.
3. Be systematic. Once you have established a focus (for example, staff
relations), approach the matter from different angles. Observe the
project at different times of day; observe a variety of different
individuals; see if you can attend a staff meeting.
4. Be prepared. Develop instruments for recording your observations
efficiently so that you can concentrate on what is happening on site.
If the instruments do not work well, modify them.
5. Be inquisitive. Set aside some time to discuss your observations with
the project director or other staff members. This will help you to put
the events you observed in context and gain a better understanding of
6. Be open. If you do not expect the unexpected, you will not find it.
— Heraclitus, 5th century B.C.
Interviewing, like other data-collection methods, can serve multiple purposes. It
provides a means of cross-checking and complementing the information
collected through observations. An evaluator interviews to learn how staff and
clientele view their experiences in the program, or to investigate issues currently
under discussion in a project. The inside knowledge gained from interviews can
provide an in-depth understanding of hard-to-measure concepts such as
community participation, empowerment, and cohesiveness.
Interviews can be used in all phases of the evaluation, but they are particularly
useful when conducting implementation and context evaluation. Because
interviews give you in-depth and detailed information, they can indicate whether
a program was implemented as originally planned, and, if not, why and how the
project has changed. This type of information helps policymakers and
administrators understand how a program actually works. It is also useful
information for individuals who may wish to replicate program services.
One of the first steps in interviewing is to find knowledgeable informants; that is,
people who will be able to give you pertinent information. These people may be
involved in service activities, hold special community positions which give them
particular insights, or simply have expertise in the issues you are studying. One
does not need a university degree or a prestigious title to be a valuable
informant. Informants can be patients, staff members, community members, local
leaders, politicians, or health professionals. Depending on the type of information
you seek, you may interview one or many different informants.
In addition to finding informants, you must also decide which method of
interviewing is most appropriate to your evaluation. Figure 6 describes different
interviewing techniques, and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of each.
If you wish to record an interview, first obtain permission from the interviewee.
If there are indications that the presence of the tape recorder makes the
interviewee uncomfortable, consider taking handwritten notes instead. Tape-
recording is required only if you need a complete transcript or exact quotes. If
you choose to focus your attention on the interviewee and not take notes during
all or part of the interview, write down your impressions as soon as possible after
Approaches to Interviewing
Type of Interview
Questions emerge from the
Increases the salience and
Different information collected from
immediate context and are asked in
relevance of questions; interviews
different people with different
the natural course of things; there
are built on and emerge from
questions. Less systematic and
are no predetermined questions,
observations; the interview can be
comprehensive if certain questions
topics, or wordings.
matched to individuals and
do not arise "naturally." Data
organization and analysis can be
Topics and issues to be covered are
The outline increases the
Important and salient topics may be
specified in advance, in outline
comprehensiveness of the data and
inadvertently omitted. Interviewer
form; interviewer decides sequence
makes data collection somewhat
flexibility in sequencing and wording
and wording of questions in the
systematic for each respondent.
questions can result in substantially
course of the interview.
Logical gaps in data can be
different responses from different
anticipated and closed. Interviews
perspectives, thus reducing the
remain fairly conversational and
comparability of responses.
The exact wording and sequence of
Respondents answer the same
Little flexibility in relating the
questions are determined in
questions, thus increasing
interview to particular individuals
advance. All interviewees are asked
comparability of responses; data are
and circumstances; standardized
the same questions in the same
complete for each person on the
wording of questions may constrain
order. Questions are worded in a
topics addressed in the interview.
and limit naturalness and relevance
completely open-ended format.
Reduces interviewer effects and
bias when several interviewers are
used. Permits evaluation users to
see and review the instrumentation
used in the evaluation. Facilitates
organization and analysis of the
of questions and answers.
Questions and response categories
Data analysis is simple; responses
Respondents must fit their
are determined in advance.
can be directly compared and easily
experiences and feelings into the
Respondent chooses from among
aggregated; many questions can be
researcher's categories; may be
these fixed responses.
asked in a short time.
perceived as impersonal, irrelevant,
and mechanistic. Can distort what
respondents really mean or have
experienced by so completely
limiting their response choices.
From Patton (1990)
An evaluator may choose to interview people individually or in groups. If the
evaluator is concerned about maintaining the informants' anonymity or simply
wants to make sure that they feel free to express unpopular ideas, it is best to
interview people individually. This also allows the evaluator to compare various
perspectives of an event, which is particularly useful when asking about sensitive
topics. In Oscar Lewis's (1961) study of a Mexican family, The Children of Sanchez,
each member of the Sanchez family was interviewed individually because he was
afraid the children would not speak their minds if their domineering father was
in the room.
When confidentiality is not a concern, and the evaluator is interested in quickly
sampling the range of opinions on a topic, a group interview is preferable. One
popular technique for conducting collective interviews is the focus group,
where six to eight individuals meet for an hour or two to discuss a specific topic,
such as local health concerns. Unlike a random sampling of the population, the
participants in a focus group are generally selected because they share certain
characteristics (e.g., they are diabetic, pregnant, or have other specific health
concerns) which make their opinions particularly relevant to the study.
In the focus group session, participants are asked to respond to a series of
predetermined questions. However, they are not expected or encouraged to work
toward consensus or rethink their views, but simply to state what they believe.
Many participants find the interaction stimulating and mention things they would
not have thought of individually.
The nominal group technique and the Delphi technique are useful when
you wish to pose a specific question to a group of individuals, and then ask the
group to generate a list of responses and rank them in order of importance. These
techniques were developed to facilitate efficient group decision making by busy
executives, but they may also be useful in evaluation, particularly when groups
composed of experts, community members, or project staff are making
recommendations for ongoing projects.
Nominal group technique is a simple method that may be used if the individuals
can be brought together at a face-to-face meeting. Delphi technique needs more
elaborate preparation and organization but does not require the individuals to
come together. Thus it may be useful if, for instance, you want community
leaders to rank the most important local health problems but their schedules will
not permit participation in a group meeting.
Examples of questions that could be answered with either technique include:
What kinds of programs should be provided for adolescents? What are the most
serious problems facing senior citizens in the community? Which program
activity offered by this health project do you consider most successful?
Nominal Group Technique:
In this technique, five to nine participants (preferably not more than seven) sit
around a table, together with a leader. If there are more participants, they are
divided into small groups. A single session, which deals with a single question,
usually takes about 60-90 minutes. The basic steps are:
1 . Silent generation of ideas in writing — After making a welcoming statement,
the leader reads aloud the question that the participants are to answer. Then
each participant is given a worksheet (with the question printed at the top)
and asked to take five minutes to write his or her ideas. Discussion is not
2. "Round-robin" feedback of ideas — The leader goes around the table and
asks each member to contribute one of his or her ideas summarized in a
few words. These ideas are numbered and written so they are visible to all
members. The process goes on until no further ideas are forthcoming.
Discussion is not permitted during this stage.
3. Serial discussion of ideas — Each of the ideas on the board is discussed in
turn. The objective of this discussion is to obtain clarity and to air points of
view, but not to resolve differences of opinion.
4. Preliminary vote — The participants are asked to select a specific number of
"most important" items from the total list (usually five to nine). Then they
are to rank these items on cards. The cards are collected and shuffled to
maintain anonymity, and the votes are read out and recorded on a tally-chart
that shows all the items and the rank numbers allocated to each.
5. Discussion of preliminary vote — A brief discussion of the voting pattern is
now permitted. Members are told that the purpose of this discussion is
additional clarification, and not to pressure others to change their votes.
6. Final vote — Step 4 is repeated.
This technique is more elaborate than the nominal group technique. A series of
mailed questionnaires is usually used, each one sent out after the results of the
previous one have been analyzed. The process, therefore, usually takes weeks or
months. The basic steps are:
1. Each participant lists issues in response to a question.
2. The evaluator develops and circulates a composite list of responses for
members to rank in order of importance or agreement.
3. The evaluator summarizes results into a new questionnaire reflecting the
4. Members again respond, rerank, and provide a brief rationale for their
5. The evaluator generates a final questionnaire, giving revised priorities and
rankings or ratings, and major reasons for dissent.
6. Each member makes a final evaluation for final group consensus.
A survey or questionnaire is a written document that a group of people is asked
to complete. Surveys can be short or long and can be administered in many
settings. For example, a patient satisfaction survey with only a few questions
could be constructed on a postcard and given to clients as they leave a clinic.
More comprehensive responses may require a longer or more detailed survey.
Survey questions can be open- or closed-ended. Open-ended questions might
ask: How do you feel about the program? What do you want to see happen in
our community? Open-ended questions provide relatively rich information about
a topic; allow participants to report thoughts, opinions and feelings; and are
relatively low-cost. However, there are disadvantages. Sometimes people are
reluctant to write down opinions, or the survey may be time-consuming to
complete and analyze.
Unlike open-ended questions, closed-ended questions provide discrete, multiple-
choice responses from which the respondent selects the most appropriate. For
How often do you use our center?
b. a few times a year
c. once a month
d. a few times a month
e. once a week
f. more than once a week
Closed-ended questions have the advantage of uniformity and easy translation for
statistical analyses. Surveys can easily be administered to large groups of people and
are usually easy to complete. However, closed-ended surveys tend to impose a set
of fixed ideas or values on the respondent by forcing choices from a limited array
of options. As a result, they are less likely to uncover surprising information, and
they limit the emergence of in-depth understandings and nuances of meanings.
Regardless of the type of questionnaire you use, written survey questions are
inappropriate if the respondents have low language literacy or are unfamiliar with
the conventions surrounding survey completion. A survey administered over the
telephone or in person might be more appropriate for this population.
Here are a few simple rules to follow when developing a survey:
1. Make the questions short and clear, ideally no more than 20 words. Be sure
to give the respondents all the information they will need to answer the
2. Avoid questions that have more than one central idea or theme.
3. Keep questions relevant to the problem.
4. Do not use jargon. Your target population must be able to answer the
questions you are asking. If they are not familiar with professional jargon, do
not use it.
5. Avoid words which are not exact (e.g., generally, usually, average, typically,
often, and rarely). If you do use these words, you may get information
which is unreliable or not useful.
6. Avoid stating questions in the negative.
7. Avoid introducing bias. Slanted questions will produce slanted results.
8. Make sure the answer to one question relates smoothly to the next. For
example, if necessary add "if yes. ..did you?" or "if no.. .did you?"
9. Give exact instructions to the respondent on how to record answers. For
example, explain exactly where to write the answers: check a box, circle a
10. Provide response alternatives. For example, include the response "other" for
answers that don't fit elsewhere.
1 1 . Make the questionnaire attractive. Plan its format carefully using sub-
headings, spaces, etc. Make the survey look easy for a respondent to
complete. An unusually long questionnaire may alarm respondents.
12. Decide beforehand how the answers will be recorded and analyzed.
After you have prepared your survey instrument, the next step is to pilot it. Ask
your test audience to give you feedback on the clarity of the questions, the
length of time needed to complete the survey, and any specific problems they
encountered while completing the survey. Feedback from your pilot group will
help you perfect the survey instrument.
Tests and Assessments
Tests and assessments can be useful tools in evaluation. In context evaluation, this
method can allow you to gain information about the needs of the target
population. In outcome evaluation, it can indicate changes in health status or
behavior resulting from project activities. However, most of these measures require
expertise and specialized training to properly design, administer, and analyze.
Physiological health status measures can be used to reveal priority health
needs, or indicate the extent of particular health problems in a target population
or community. Examples of these measures are broad-based screenings, such as
cholesterol or blood-pressure readings, and physiological assessment data collected
by other community organizations or hospitals. For example, a large number of
low-birthweight babies reported by local hospitals may lead you to provide
educational programs on prenatal care for prospective mothers.
Physiological assessments can also be used to measure the outcomes of a project.
An increase in the birthweights of infants born to mothers in your prenatal care
program is an indicator that the project may be answering an identified need.
Statistical tests for significance can be applied to this kind of data to further
confirm the positive effects of your project.
Knowledge or achievement tests can be used to measure participants'
knowledge or behavior. Through testing before and after educational programs, you
can assess what the participants need to learn, and then measure what they have
actually learned. Be aware, however, that a person's knowledge does not prove that
the person is using that knowledge in everyday life.
Another type of knowledge or achievement testing is done through observation,
as when a staff member observes a mother interacting with her child to
determine whether there has been progress in mastery of parenting skills. Or, a
home visit could include observation of improvement in an elderly person's
mobility, or of specific skills learned by the caretaker. If they are to be useful as
project outcome measures, these observations should be documented so that they
can be compared across cases or across time. (See earlier section entitled
Observation, page 73.) Standardized indices are available for coding observations.
Participant self-reports, including standardized psychological and attitudinal
assessments, can also be used to measure need and assess outcomes. You may
develop your own instruments to determine, for example, client satisfaction with
existing health services or reactions to services offered by your project.
Standardized questionnaires developed by health researchers on such topics as
patient satisfaction, general health (including items on physical, emotional, and
social function), mental health and depression, and disability status can also be
used. There are advantages to using a questionnaire that has already been
developed and field-tested. However, bear in mind that standardized assessments
may not adequately reflect the important and unique aspects of your project or
the situation of your target population.
Internal documents are another source of potentially valuable data for the program
evaluator. These include mission statements, organizational charts, annual reports,
activity schedules, diaries, funding proposals, participant utilization records,
promotional literature, etc. Such materials enable the evaluator to learn about the
history, philosophy, goals, and outcomes of a particular project, and also provide
clues about important shifts in program development or maturation. A document
review may also be a good way to formulate questions for use in a survey or
interview. Bear in mind that written documents do not necessarily provide
comprehensive or correct answers to specific problems, as they may contain errors,
omissions, or exaggerations. They are simply one form of evidence, and should be
used carefully and in connection with other types of data.
Following is a list of some of the documents routinely kept by many projects,
along with a few suggestions about how they might be used. The list is intended
to be suggestive, not exhaustive:
1. Reports — These can be helpful in learning how the project originated, how
it is currently organized, what it claims to do, how it intends to reach its
objectives, the nature of its target population, what efforts are being made to
achieve sustainability, etc.
2. Promotional literature — Brochures and flyers (or the absence of these items)
can help the evaluator to assess the project's outreach efforts.
3. Logs and diaries — These may provide insights into project activities, staff
relations, important events in the life of the organization, and changes in
4. Minutes of meetings — These will generally provide information on
attendance, dominance and other role relations, planning, and decision
Example: Staff of a large community-based organization dedicated to
health reform initiated an evaluation designed to determine the impact
of, and lessons learned from, their past and present programming. Their
evaluation did not focus on the "success" of individual projects, but
rather concentrated on the organization's progress as a whole in
implementing its overall mission of improving community residents'
access to health care, increasing their knowledge of prevention-focused
health care, and reducing the occurrence of high-risk health behaviors.
An evaluation team, consisting of representatives of each project and an
external evaluator, previously determined the primary evaluation
questions: Have community residents experienced greater access to
health-care services overall? Do community members have increased
knowledge as to what constitutes high-risk health behaviors? Have high-
risk health behaviors decreased among community members? What
lessons have been learned from implementing these programs? What
opportunities have been missed in improving the overall health of
Given the purpose, key questions, and human and financial realities of
what was feasible, the evaluation team determined that based on the
significant amount of data which individual projects had already
collected, data-collection methods selected for this evaluation needed to
maximize the use of existing data so as not to duplicate efforts and waste
precious resources. In order to obtain information from a variety of
perspectives, however, the evaluation team decided that the questions
they wanted to answer would be best addressed through a combination
of quantitative and qualitative data obtained from on-site observations
and interviews, as well as a review of previously collected data.
On the qualitative side, they planned an extensive review of existing
documents, such as project-specific interim reports, previous evaluations,
mission statements, and organizational charts. They anticipated that this
review would provide the evaluation team with the context of each
project's history, goals, and achieved outcomes in relation to the
organization as a whole. In addition, based on this information, they
intended to identify key informants for subsequent interviewing and on-
site observation purposes.
On the quantitative side, since each project was required to collect data
on an ongoing basis in relation to number of participants/clients served,
as well as various project-specific information data (such as length of
time participants spent in a project, number of referrals given, pre- and
post-program impacts, etc.), some data were already available for purposes
of this evaluation and did not need to be collected again.
By employing these data-collection methods, the evaluation team
intended to obtain a more complete picture of this organization's health
reform efforts to date.
Things to Remember . . .
• Determine data-collection methods based on how appropriate they
are for answering your key evaluation questions and for achieving the
ultimate purpose of the evaluation.
• Tie method selection to available resources. This may mean revising
your evaluation design and methods, or determining other options to
stay within budget. It may also mean finding additional resources to
fund the evaluation design which will be most effective and useful.
• Choose methods based on what is appropriate for the target
population and project participants.
• Strengthen the credibility and usefulness of evaluation results by
mixing evaluation methods where appropriate.
Step 6: Collecting Data
Once you have refined your evaluation questions and determined what
evaluation methods to use, you and your evaluation team are ready to collect
data. Before spinning your wheels developing interview guides and survey
questionnaires, examine the existing information about your target population,
community, or project. Important questions to ask of your organization and other
• Why do you collect this information?
• How is it currently used?
• Can it help you address your evaluation questions? How?
• What is still missing?
• Are there other sources of information for what is missing?
Remember to "collect only the information you are going to use, and use all
the information you collect."
Since the Foundation supports an integrated, rather than a stand-alone
approach to evaluation, the data-collection step becomes critical in the project-
level evaluation process. Most organizations collect a great deal of information
on a range of topics and issues pertaining to their work. However, that
information often stays unused in management computer systems, or remains
isolated in a particular area of the organization. Therefore, we see part of the
data-collection process as examining existing tracking systems, deciding why
certain data are collected and how they are used, and thinking critically about
what kinds of data you and staff need but have not been collecting in
consistent ways. Discussions about in-house data collection also encourage
communication across functional lines so that relevant data, collected at
different points in the system or process, can be connected, leading to new
insights, actions, and positive changes.
As with all of the steps in this evaluation blueprint, it is important to connect
this phase with the others in the process. Many evaluators get caught in the
information-collection step — collecting everything they can get their hands on
and creating more and more instruments with which to collect it. Social
programs and services are becoming increasingly complex to handle increasingly
complex situations. With so many types of data and information, it becomes
difficult to stay focused on the specific questions that you are trying to address.
Encourage those responsible for data collection to continually ask themselves
how each piece of data they collect will be used, how it will fit with the other
pieces of data, and how it will help answer the questions at hand.
The data-collection step also helps you and your evaluation team to revise the
design and methods based on resources (financial and human); to examine how
the evaluation process is received by clients and other people from whom
information is collected; and to assess the usefulness of the information collected.
Example: In the previous example describing a community-based
organization dedicated to health reform, the evaluation team, composed
of both project staff and evaluators, decided to start by collecting existing
data for several reasons. First, given the scope of the evaluation, the team
did not have access to the human and financial resources necessary to
obtain such a vast amount of data from scratch. In addition, since this
organization is large and has a considerable number of projects, data
presented in a variety of formats were readily available. Finally, the
evaluation team believed that starting the data-collection process with
the examination of existing data would provide important information
needed to guide the second phase of data collection — interviews and on-
The process of collecting existing data was helpful in terms of refining
evaluation questions, identifying key informants for subsequent
interviewing purposes, developing interview protocols, and determining
what data important to the evaluation were missing. As a result, the
evaluation team was better able to tailor the interviewing and on-site
observation phase of data collection to fill in gaps in the existing data. For
example, prior to this review, volunteers had not been identified as a
group to be interviewed. After having reviewed existing material,
however, the evaluation team became aware of the crucial role volunteers
played in most projects. They were subsequently included in the interview
schedule and provided vital information in terms of the evaluation.
An explicit goal of the second phase of the data-collection process was to
speak with a cross section of people who represented many layers of a
project. Given the limited time, money, and available staff for
interviewing purposes, however, the evaluation team was unable to
interview all of the people identified in phase one. With this in mind, the
evaluation team determined that it was especially important to interview
community members and direct fine staff for purposes of confirmation
and clarity. Having done that, the evaluation team felt that they got a
much fuller picture of what occurred, what worked well, and what the
challenges of each project — as well as the organization as a whole — were,
despite interviewing fewer people than originally planned.
By working as a team, members of the evaluation team were able to
prioritize together what was doable in terms of collecting data, given
existing constraints. Also as a result of this teamwork, multiple
perspectives were contributed to the data-collection process, and a
greater sense of ownership of the evaluation as a whole was evident
throughout the organization.
This two-phased data-collection process provided important lessons for
improving the organization's existing data tracking systems. It provided
staff with the opportunity to identify what kind of data they needed but
were not collecting in an ongoing, systematic way, as well as any
irrelevant data they were inadvertently collecting.
In addition, the process of interviewing key stakeholders in the projects
not only helped address key questions specific to this evaluation, but also
provided additional information such as staff and volunteer development
needs, as well as program improvement ideas. Based on this experience,
the evaluation team decided to integrate periodic interviews into their
ongoing program tracking and data-collection system. This has enabled
them to simultaneously provide staff development opportunities, work
toward program goals, and collect data on an ongoing basis.
Things to Remember . . .
• Collect only the data you will use and that are relevant to your
evaluation questions and purposes.
• Involve all staff involved in the data-collection phase in up-front
• Revise data-collection strategies based on initial analyses. What is
working? What is not working? What pieces of data are still missing?
• Base changes to existing tracking/ data-collection strategies on what is
learned from evaluation.
Step 7: Analyzing and Interpreting Data
After designing an evaluation and collecting data, the information must be
described, analyzed, interpreted, and a judgment made about the meaning of
the findings in the context of the project. This process can be complicated
and, at times, technical. In fact, many books are dedicated to the many
methods of evaluation. Thus, it is not possible for an introductory manual to
adequately explain the techniques of analysis and interpretation. In the
following pages, however, we summarize some of the basic techniques for
organizing and analyzing data.
Most often we think of statistical or quantitative analysis when we think about
analyzing. Project staff without a background in statistics may be intimidated by
quantitative analysis; what we often see is that deference is given to external or
internal evaluators because they know how to "do evaluation." However, there
are ways that project staff and an evaluation team without strong statistical
backgrounds can analyze collected data. For example, you can begin by
converting quantitative findings (e.g., numbers from utilization records, or
answers on questionnaires) into percentages or averages.
The importance of valuing and seeking multiple perspectives comes into play
during this phase of the evaluation. Quantitative data analysis does require
interpreting the results and seeing if it makes sense given the project's contextual
factors — factors that staff know better than most. Project staff and the evaluation
team should work together and ask: Do these results make sense? What are some
possible explanations for findings that are surprising? What decisions were made
about categories and indicators of success? Have we missed other indicators?
How might what we chose to collect and analyze be distorting the program/
initiative? And most importantly, how will the numbers and results help us decide
what actions will improve the program?
Remember that we want evaluation to support programs and help them improve.
Complex statistical analyses of a well-designed experimental investigation that does not
lead to improvements are less desirable than a thorough but simple statistical analysis of
existing tracking records that leads to positive changes in both the program and in the
Qualitative Data Analysis
Qualitative data includes information gathered from interviews, observations,
written documents or journals, even open-ended survey questions. Information
gathered from interviews and observations is often recorded in lengthy narratives
or field notes. In some cases, interviews are tape-recorded and then transcribed.
Some of these accounts are useful and can stand alone — providing important
information about how the program is working. In most cases, however, it is
valuable to analyze your qualitative data in more systematic ways.
The Foundation, advocating for qualitative methods and analysis as a way to
better understand programs, feels that not enough people understand the power
and logic of qualitative methods. This is, in large part, because they have not been
trained to systematically analyze qualitative data. Too often, qualitative data are
seen as nice anecdotal information that bring the real results (the numbers) to life
and put them in context. However, qualitative data help explain how a program
works and why it has played out in a certain way, why a program faced certain
stumbling blocks, and may even explain — and provide evidence of- — those hard-
to-measure outcomes that cannot be defined quantitatively.
As previously noted, there are many subtle nuances to qualitative data analysis
that cannot be discussed in this manual, but there are many resources available for
those interested in using qualitative analysis to strengthen their evaluation
findings. The following describes some basic qualitative analysis techniques.
Categorization and Coding Techniques:
Qualitative data allows you to look for similarities across several accounts,
interviews, and/or documents. Examining interview transcripts, observation field
notes, or open-ended surveys for patterns and themes involves categorizing your
notes into recurring topics that seem relevant to your evaluation questions. This
is often done by first reading through your materials to identify themes and
patterns. The next step is to cut up transcript copies, sorting by the key
categories you discovered, and affixing these pieces to index cards (always
remembering to identify where they came from) or to use computer programs
that perform the task electronically. Organizing your material in such a way will
make it easier to locate patterns, develop new hypotheses, or test hypotheses
derived from other sources.
Contextualization Analysis Techniques:
Although using categorization techniques is a powerful way to document
patterns and themes in a program, unless used with contextualization techniques
which focus more on how things fit together, categorizing can lead to
premature generalizations about the program. Case studies and narrative
summaries about a particular piece of the program or participant are
contextualization techniques that preserve and clarify the connections. These
techniques bring to light important contextual factors and individual differences
which are often hidden from view when we break transcripts and qualitative
data into disconnected categories.
Many critics of qualitative evaluation methods argue that it is too subjective; that
evaluators lose their objectivity when they get close to a program or people
involved. Others would argue, and we at the Kellogg Foundation would agree,
that complete objectivity is not possible even in quantitative work. Furthermore,
we believe that professional qualitative evaluators have devised effective ways to
deal with subjectivity — by reflecting on their own values and biases, and then
analyzing how these affect what information they collect and don't collect, what
they hear and don't hear, how they interpret the data, and what conclusions they
ultimately make. Through an ongoing process of writing reflective memos about
the evaluation process, their data, and their interpretations, qualitative evaluators
ensure that they pay attention to the influences of biases and values, an
inevitable part of any evaluation. This further supports our suggestion that
evaluations be planned and conducted by an evaluation team. In this way,
memos can be shared, and multiple perspectives come together to ensure that all
perspectives have been considered.
Other Forms of Analysis
Finally, we want you to know that there are additional analysis techniques which
are based on other evaluation philosophies. For instance, feminist research
methods have led to analysis techniques such as Carol Gilligan's voice-centered
analysis (Brown and Gilligan, 1990; Brown and Gilligan, 1992; Gilligan, Brown,
and Rogers, 1990). Demonstrating that traditional interview analysis techniques
missed or misrepresented critical stories that girls and women were telling about
their moral development, Gilligan developed her theory of analysis to bring some
of these hidden stories and themes to the surface.
Participatory evaluators have developed techniques where the participants work
with evaluators to analyze their own interview transcripts, and together, develop
The point is that many forms of analysis besides statistical analysis exist to help us
understand and explain what is happening with social programs and services
today. Which analysis techniques or combination of techniques to use depends
again on the particulars of your project, who you are serving and in what
contexts, and the questions you are attempting to answer.
Time pressures and constraints associated with conducting evaluations often
limit an evaluator's ability to conduct thoughtful and in-depth analyses. We
believe it is important to invest enough time and resources in the analysis and
interpretation step, since it is during this integral phase that decisions are made
and actions taken.
In summary, interpretation involves looking beyond the mounds of raw data to
ask important questions about what the results mean, what led to the findings,
and whether the findings are significant. Remember to involve stakeholders as
your evaluation team seeks answers to these questions. Besides reducing their
anxiety, you will gain insight from their knowledge about the program and
maintain excitement about the evaluation process.
Example 1: Staff of a program focused on increasing public education
and awareness related to groundwater quality and drinking water issues
hit the ground running with a series of workshops aimed at providing
local government representatives and community residents with
information and knowledge about relevant groundwater issues. Midway
through the workshop series, staff realized that they were not doing what
they set out to do. In particular, they were not reaching their intended
audience — local government officials and community residents — and
instead found themselves "preaching to the choir" — other service
providers and advocate organizations like themselves.
Wanting to understand why local officials and average citizens were not
coming to the workshops as they had marketed them, the project director
hired a local evaluator to work with two staff people to learn more. The
team constructed customer surveys and then interviewed a sample of local
government officials as well as community residents to determine how,
more effectively, to structure and deliver the workshop series.
This evaluation team conducted the interviews and then worked together
on the analysis and interpretation phase. Through a series of meetings, the
team dialogued and analyzed the results of the customer interviews. As a
team, they were able to check out their assumptions, act as sounding
boards for particular interpretations, and build consensus based on their
different perspectives. In addition, the staff members on the evaluation
team who were responsible for the curriculum development and
implementation were able to connect the customer interview results to
implications for curriculum revisions. Because they were actively involved
in the analysis and interpretation phases of the evaluation, the two staff
members had a real sense of ownership over the changes they decided to
make to the curriculum and understood, firsthand, how these changes
connected to the data collected from their customers.
Ultimately, as a team, they were able to derive many insights about the
strengths and weaknesses of the workshop series. They learned what
motivated their customers and why they initially came to the workshops.
Based on their collective interpretation of the customer interviews, staff
members (with the evaluator's input) were able to redesign the workshop
series to meet the customers' needs and interests.
Another overarching insight of the evaluation was the fact that they had
defined their geographic area too largely. People were motivated by issues
affecting their immediate community and neighborhoods. The
evaluation team found they needed to frame the issues in terms of the
people's lives and landmarks. Workshops originally designed for almost a
dozen local communities were split into smaller areas of only a few local
communities that were related to one another, and focused on topics
directly affecting those communities.
The analysis of the customer interviews also yielded important
information about how to structure the workshops; what audience
mixes made the most sense; the timing and locations which would be
most effective; and the topics which were most relevant to particular
For each lesson learned from the analysis and interpretation of the
surveys, the staff members made relevant changes to the content and
format of the workshops. Through additional analysis of post- workshop
evaluation surveys and informal follow-up calls, they found these changes
yielded both increased attendance, and a stronger educational vehicle for
the goals of the program. This next phase of analysis and interpretation of
post-workshop data is also providing the evaluation team with important
new questions to address, including: Should this workshop be an
ongoing series over a longer time period? Are participants interested in
creating a network and problem-solving group out of this workshop
experience around groundwater issues? How might we maintain and
support that network?
Example 2: In the case of the national organization serving
disadvantaged women, there is a good example of how a change in
evaluation questions and primary data collection methods led to new
interpretations and findings. These new interpretations, in turn, led to
important changes in organizational priorities.
As we discussed in an earlier section, the first evaluation focused on
whether a pilot program for disadvantaged women worked. Designed
as a traditional impacts study, the evaluation consisted primarily of
client surveys and structured follow-up interviews — effective and
appropriate methods to address the primary evaluation question: Did
the program work?
However, staff realized after reading the evaluation report that although
they did want evidence of whether the program was successful, there
were many other critical questions which were not addressed in this first
evaluation process. When a second evaluation was commissioned for the
following year, staff decided it was important to work with the evaluators
to determine what they wanted to know about their program and
organization. Then, the evaluation could be designed specifically around
these questions. As a team, with the evaluators' input and facilitation, staff
decided that this pilot program marked an important shift in their
organization's identity and how they went about achieving their mission.
They wanted the evaluation to address the following questions:
• How and why did this program work?
• Who were the women they served, really?
• What did this program mean to the women participating?
• How did this program connect to the organization as a whole?
In addition, they wanted to ensure that the evaluation would provide
them with useful information to improve their programs, services, and
This process provides a good example of how a change in evaluation
questions can lead to the selection of different evaluation methods, and
ultimately to different interpretations. Given the revised evaluation
questions, the evaluation team determined that a primarily qualitative
approach -was the most appropriate, at least for the first year. In order to
answer their questions effectively, the evaluation team needed to
understand 1) the meaning of related events and experiences to those
involved in the program; and 2) the contextual and situational factors
that impact human and organizational development change. This is best
addressed through qualitative methods, including in-depth interviews,
focus groups, and observation.
Once the data were collected, the evaluation team began the analysis and
interpretation of each particular component (e.g., interviews, observations,
document review) with close reading of the transcripts and field notes to
look for themes and connections, and determine the meaning. Then they
analyzed the data from interviews, focus groups, and observations using
traditional categorization and coding techniques, looking for patterns and
themes both within and across the program sites.
At the same time, the differences across sites and among the different
perspectives helped the evaluation team to avoid generalizing too quickly
about patterns, themes, and hypotheses. To ensure that they did not lose
site of individual differences and contextual factors, the evaluation team
combined categorizing analysis techniques (which focus on similarities)
with contextualization techniques, such as narrative summaries and mini
case studies. These techniques helped them preserve the connections
within a particular site or person's experience and bring to light
contextual factors and individual differences that are often hidden from
view when using only categorization techniques.
Ultimately, these changes in data-collection methods and analysis
techniques led to new interpretations about what was going on. Rather
than learning primarily about the program and whether it had "worked,"
the second evaluation led to new and important insights about the
transformations this organization was going through as a whole. The
evaluation provided information about the pilot program in the context
of larger organizational changes. The evaluation team learned that the
pilot program marked an important transition in their organizational
identity and in how they delivered services to their client base. It also
was an important time of testing out and solidifying their organizational
principles and values based on what they had learned about what worked
for women in poverty. They also learned that staff and volunteers at all
levels of the organization were feeling stress and confusion as a result of
the recent changes.
These new interpretations, in turn, led to important strategic actions,
including an increased investment in staff development to support staff
through this change process and a focus on articulating the organization's
values and principles and a logic model/theory of change about how the
organization intended to achieve its mission to reduce the number of
women in poverty.
Things to Remember . . .
While analyzing and interpreting both quantitative and qualitative data, be
careful to avoid the following pitfalls:
• Assuming that the program is the only cause of positive changes
documented. Several factors, some of which are unrelated to project
activities, may be responsible for changes in participants or in a
community. It is usually not possible to isolate impacts, and the
evaluation report should at least acknowledge other factors which
may have contributed to change.
• Forgetting that the same evaluation method may give different results
when used by different people, or that respondents may tell the
evaluator what they believe he or she wants to hear. For example, two
interviewers may ask the same questions but receive different answers
because one was friendlier or more patient than the other. Real
problems or difficulties may be ignored or hidden because people
want the project to succeed or appear to be succeeding.
• Choosing the wrong groups to compare or comparing groups that are
different in too many ways. For example, gender, age, race, economic
status, and many other factors can all have an impact on project
outcomes. If comparisons between groups are important, try to
compare those with similar characteristics except for the variable you
• Claiming that the results of a small-scale evaluation also apply to a
wide group or geographic area. For example, it is misleading to
evaluate participants' responses to a particular intervention in one
city and then claim that the results apply to the U.S. as a whole.
While this may well be the case, an evaluation report should reflect
only the data analyzed.
Page 95 Evaluation Handbook
Utilization Steps: Communicating Findings and
8. Communicating Findings and Insights
9. Utilizing the Process and Results of Evaluation
Step 8: Communicating Findings and Insights
Relevant stakeholders and your evaluation team should discuss the most useful
ways to communicate evaluation findings. This communication might take the
form of weekly discussions with the evaluation team. It might include monthly
discussions or roundtables with a larger audience. Project staff might ask external
evaluators who are not on site to send biweekly memos on their insights and
reflections for response and comment. The critical point is to involve everyone "who
will need this information in discussions about how best to communicate the
progress of the evaluation.
A commitment to ongoing dialogue and more interactive forms of communication
will not only increase ownership and motivation to act on what is learned, but will
also assist in refining the evaluation design, questions, methods, and interpretations.
This iterative process will optimize resources to, in turn, answer the most pressing
Marketing and Dissemination
We strongly suggest that marketing and dissemination planning be integrated
with evaluation planning. Ideally, the information that will inform the
marketing and dissemination function should be considered early on so that
the data collection plan focuses on obtaining relevant data. In addition to the
ongoing communication mechanisms you set up during the evaluation
process, it is important to develop more formal reports and presentations that
provide information about your project, including evaluation findings. These
more formal reports should be disseminated in a number of ways, and to a
variety of audiences.
Writing Annual and Final Reports to the Kellogg Foundation:
Annual and final reports to the Kellogg Foundation are the primary ways we
learn from projects' experiences. They are most helpful in informing our future
grantmaking when they document what is happening or has happened in your
project and why, and describe the lessons learned in the process of designing
and implementing your project. Yet, many such reports simply document
project activities and expenditures, and say little about lessons learned and
The best initial source to consult in preparing your reports to the Kellogg
Foundation is the commitment letter which informed you of our decision to
provide a grant to your organization. As mentioned earlier, this letter typically
lists the significant evaluation questions that we believe your project may help
answer. While neither your evaluation nor your reports should be limited solely
to these questions, they do provide a good starting point.
Annual and final reports need not be lengthy. In fact, a concise, well-written
report of ten pages is more likely to influence our programming than one
hundred pages of raw data.
Communicating to Other Stakeholders:
Disseminating information about your project to outside audiences can serve
many purposes: improve the functioning of related projects and organizations;
provide an accounting to funding and regulatory bodies; convince diverse
audiences of the project's importance; and generate further support for the
projects you have implemented. Evaluation findings presented in the media,
describing project activities and the conditions of the target group, can increase
local understanding and involvement.
Be creative and innovative in reporting evaluation findings. Use a variety of
techniques such as visual displays, oral presentations, summary statements, interim
reports, and informal conversations. Additional ideas include:
• Write and disseminate a complete evaluation report, including an executive
summary and appropriate technical appendices.
• Write separate executive summaries and popular articles using evaluation
findings, targeted at specific audiences or stakeholder groups.
• Write a carefully worded press release and have a prestigious office or public
figure deliver it to the media.
• Hold a press conference in conjunction with the press release.
Make verbal presentations to select groups. Include demonstration exercises
that actively involve participants in analysis and interpretations.
Construct professionally designed graphics, charts, and displays for use in
Make a short video or audiotape presenting the results, for use in analysis
sessions and discussions.
Stage a debate or advocate-adversary analysis of the findings in which
opposing points of view can be fully aired.
Things to Remember . . .
Most evaluations will involve the preparation of a formal written report.
When writing reports, keep the following in mind:
• Know who your audience is and what information they need.
Different audiences need different information, even when addressing
the same issues.
• Relate evaluation information to decisions. Reports written for
decision-making purposes should first state the recommendation,
followed by a summary of the relevant evaluation findings.
• Start with the most important information. While writing, imagine
that your audience will not have time to read the whole report; be
brief, yet informative. Develop concise reports by writing a clear
abstract and starting each chapter, subsection, or paragraph with the
most important point.
• Highlight important points with boxes, different type sizes, and bold
or italic type.
• Make your report readable. Do not use professional jargon or
vocabulary that may be difficult to understand. Use active verbs to
shorten sentences and increase their impact. Write short paragraphs,
each covering only a single idea.
• Edit your report, looking for unnecessary words and phrases. It is
better to have someone else edit your work; if you must edit yourself,
allow a day or two to pass between writing and editing.
Page 98 Evaluation Handbook
Step 9: Utilizing the Process and Results of Evaluation
Above all, an evaluation must provide usable information. It must enable project directors,
for example, to guide and shape their projects toward the greatest effectiveness.
The final action step we want to discuss is how we use the process and results of
evaluation. Here is where so many evaluations fall short. Many grantees complain
that evaluations of their programs are not used to make decisions; oftentimes,
they do not provide information that is useful in the day-to-day management of
the program. In other cases, although staff have found evaluations useful, it is hard
to determine exactly when and how the evaluation process or results led to
decision making or actions. Evaluation often gets things started but only in
We believe that one of the most important characteristics of an effective
evaluation is that it does provide usable information — information that project
staff and other stakeholders can utilize directly to make decisions about the
program. An evaluation report that sits on someone's shelf will not lead us to
improved program design and management. Effective program evaluation
supports action. Useful evaluation processes and results inform decisions, clarify
options, identify strengths and weaknesses, and provide information on program
improvements, policies, and key contextual factors affecting the program.
It is important that the evaluation team and other stakeholders think about the
question of use from the outset of the evaluation process. If you wait until the
end of the evaluation to discuss how you want to use evaluation results, it will be
too late; the potential uses of the study will already have been determined by the
decisions made along the way. Therefore, during each planning and
implementation step — Identifying Stakeholders, Developing Questions,
Budgeting, Selecting an Evaluator, Determining Methods, Collecting, Analyzing,
and Interpreting Data, and Communicating Findings — you should engage in
discussions about how you want to use the evaluation process and results to make
decisions and take actions.
Start these discussions about use by asking questions such as:
• What do you, other staff, and key stakeholders need to know more about?
• What decisions do you feel you need to make, but need more
• What will you do with the answers to your questions? (Play out different
scenarios, depending on the different answers that you may find.)
Then articulate (in writing) how you and your evaluation team intend to utilize
evaluation results. Be as specific as you can and revise as you go through the
process. By determining your priority uses early in the process, you will be able to
make more effective decisions about design and methodology questions, and will
end up with information you need to make the decisions you planned to make.
Additional questions to discuss throughout the process include:
• Who will make the decisions and when?
• What are the different issues that are likely to surface related to these
• How are decisions made in this organization?
• What other factors may affect the decision-making process?
• How will we know if we used the evaluation results and process as we
Staff and stakeholders are more likely to use evaluation if they understand and
have ownership over the evaluation process. Therefore, the more people who
have information about the evaluation and have been actively involved in the
process, the easier it will be to facilitate using the process and results for program
improvement and decision making. This is why we recommend forming an
evaluation team and developing mechanisms for spreading the word about the
evaluation process to other staff and stakeholders.
However, it is not enough to engage in discussions about how you will use
evaluation and to ensure that everyone understands the benefits of evaluation
and is actively involved in the process. Many programs have taken these initial
steps and were still unable to use evaluation to support action. One of the
reasons for this is that there are many individual and organizational obstacles
to using information and testing assumptions about a program's effectiveness.
Obstacles include: the fear of being judged, concern about the time and effort
involved, resistance to change, dysfunctional communication and information-
sharing systems, unempowered staff. Address this issue by engaging in
discussion and reflecting about the specific obstacles to using information
within your organization.
Using Evaluation Findings
Specific uses will depend on the overall purpose of your evaluation and the
questions you are attempting to address. The following highlights several specific
uses of evaluation findings:
Improving Your Program:
A goal of every evaluation should be to improve the program, and evaluation
findings should support decisions and actions about how best to do so. Specific
findings might be used to identify strengths and weaknesses of your program or
provide strategies for continuous improvement. You may decide to focus
evaluation questions on organizational issues. In this case, findings could lead to
strategies that would help staff manage more effectively, improve organizational
culture or systems, or improve staff interactions and relationships with clients.
Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Program:
In cases where the primary purpose of evaluation is to assess the effectiveness of
the program, evaluation findings should support decisions around accountability
and quality control. In some cases, findings might be used to decide a program's
future, determine the likelihood of continued funding, or make decisions about
Generating New Knowledge:
Another potential goal of evaluation is to discover new knowledge about
effective practice. In particular, the Kellogg Foundation advocates focusing
evaluation questions on how and why programs work, for whom, and in what
circumstances. Findings and insights from addressing these types of evaluation
questions provide important information about general principles of effective
practice, cross-cutting themes, connections between underlying theories and
practice, and sometimes lead to new and enhanced theories about human and
organizational development. In addition, these types of findings can be used to
collaborate, share, and learn across programs and initiatives with common themes
and principles. They are often at the heart of policymaking decisions, as well.
Utilizing the Evaluation Process
We believe that grantees can learn a great deal from the evaluation process, as
well as from evaluation results. This is particularly true when project staff
explicitly discuss what they want to learn from the evaluation process at the
beginning of the evaluation.
An evaluation process provides multiple avenues to impact staff, volunteers,
participants, and other stakeholders in positive ways. Those involved in the
evaluation will learn how to recognize the thinking processes and values that
underlie their particular approach to evaluation. They will gain skills in building
consensus; identifying key questions; collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data;
and communicating results and insights. The process will help staff become more
focused and reflective. An effective evaluation process can lead to positive changes
in organizational culture and systems. It can also increase program participants'
sense of self-efficacy and self-esteem or assist in challenging misconceptions
about a particular target population. The following highlights several specific uses
of the evaluation process:
Building Shared Meaning and Understanding:
One way you can use the evaluation process is to improve communication and
shared understanding between different groups involved in the program (e.g.,
between line staff and managers or between staff and volunteers) . Some
evaluations can help key stakeholders, or the community in general, better
understand the target population being served, particularly disenfranchised groups
who are not often heard. In short, the evaluation process can provide a way to
better connect all those involved in the program/initiative, and to build on these
Supporting and Enhancing the Program:
When data collection and analysis are integrated into program design and
implementation, the evaluation process can actually become part of the program
intervention. For instance, one program serving women in prison uses a Life Map
where participants write the history of their life and then present their Life Map
to the class. This Life Map is used to collect important baseline data about each
woman's history and life situation; however, it is also a critical part of the ten-
week intervention. It becomes a time for women to reflect on their lives and
how current situations might have been affected by past events and
circumstances. It is also an important trust-building activity as participants begin
to share and open up with one another. So, while this activity provides valuable
data for evaluative purposes, it also strengthens the program's impact.
Traditional evaluation proponents would consider this type of evaluation process
and use highly problematic. From their perspective, evaluators are supposed to
remain objective third parties who do not engage in or influence program
implementation. However, it is in line with our view that evaluation should be
an integral, ongoing part of the program, rather than a separate, stand-alone
piece. In addition, this type of evaluation process helps increase the likelihood
that evaluation findings are used, since staff are actively involved in the data-
Supporting Human and Organizational Development:
No matter what your role in a program, being involved in an effective evaluation
can impact your thinking and interactions in positive ways. Staff, volunteers,
participants, and other stakeholders involved in the evaluation will have
opportunities to acquire important skills from the process, including: identifying
problems; reflecting; setting criteria; collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data;
debating and determining alternative solutions.
With your evaluation team, think explicitly about how you can help increase the
impact that participatory evaluation processes can have on staff, volunteers, and
especially program participants. At its best, these types of evaluation processes
become capacity-building processes, where different groups involved in the
program discover and build on their assets and skills.
Example 1: An initial evaluation of a program designed to provide
educational services to families and children in an economically
disadvantaged urban community helped project staff discover that they
were operating the program based on a set of implicit and unspoken
assumptions. The fact that these assumptions were not put in writing or
discussed explicitly as part of the program seemed to be contributing to
problems with new staff's ability to understand the program, its goals, and
underlying principles. Founding staff used these evaluation insights to
create a historical overview outlining the origins of the project, the path
it had taken to get where it is, and the assumptions underlying the
program and its mission. This historical overview is now used during the
orientation of new staff, as well as in presentations of the program to
potential partners and key stakeholders, to help others understand the
history and key principles of the program.
To continue to use evaluation information effectively to improve the
program, staff are currently using the historical overview as the basis for
creating a program logic model, which will provide further details about
how the program works to achieve its goals. The process of developing a
program logic model has provided further opportunities for staff and key
stakeholders to build consensus and shared understandings about the
program and how it works. In addition, through the process of collecting
data around the different pieces of the logic model, staff will be able to
determine strengths and gaps in the program and make quality
improvements. It is through this iterative process of evaluation inquiry
followed by the use of evaluation findings that grantees will best be able
to learn about and continuously improve their programs.
Example 2: In a previous example where an organization had one
negative and then one positive evaluation process, a critical factor in
making the second evaluation process successful was the high priority
placed on supporting human and organizational development. Defined as
a developmental evaluation focused primarily on supporting human and
organizational development, the evaluation was designed to be
interactive, collaborative, and to build on the skills and assets of staff,
volunteers, and participants.
Staff were re-introduced to the concept of evaluation and encouraged to
share any negative feelings they had developed based on their first
experience with evaluation. An evaluation team consisting of key staff
members, volunteers, and a board representative actively participated in
defining evaluation questions, determining methods for collecting data,
and discussing the meaning of the data and potential actions to be
taken. Staff learned about evaluation processes and techniques and began
to take ownership over the evaluation process in ways they had not in
the first evaluation.
In addition, interviews and focus groups with program participants were
designed as intensive two-hour interviews, which served not only as an
effective method for collecting data on the women served and the impact
of the program, but also as an important part of the program intervention
itself. These interviews became a time for participants to reflect on their
lives, the paths they had taken, the barriers they had faced, and where they
were now as participants in the program. The interview process also made
them feel like valuable contributors to the evaluation process. One
participant put it this way, "You really make us feel like we have
something to offer . . . that you really care about our perspective and think
we have something to say. It feels good." This seemed particularly
important to program staff, given how disenfranchised and unempowered
many of the women in the program felt.
By investing in the developmental aspects of evaluation, the evaluation
team was able to transform the evaluation process from a negative
experience to a positive and beneficial one, where staff, participants,
volunteers, and other stakeholders were able to develop skills and
capacities in the process of collecting important evaluative information.
Sources of Information About Evaluation
Brown, Lyn Mikel, and Carol Gilligan, "Listening for Self and Relational Voices:
A Responsive/Resisting Reader's Guide," Monograph, Cambridge: Harvard
Project on Women's Psychology and Girls' Development, 1990.
Brown, Lyn Mikel, and Carol Gilligan, Meeting at the Crossroads: Women's
Psychology and Girls' Development, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992.
Bryk,A.S. (ed.), Stakeholder-Based Evaluation, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1983.
Campbell, D.T., and J.C. Stanley, Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for
Research, Chicago: Rand McNally, 1966.
Chen, Huey-tsyh, Theory-Driven Evaluations, California: Sage Publications, 1990.
Connell, P.James, Anne C. Kubisch, Lisbeth B. Schorr, and Carol H.Weiss, New
Approaches to Evaluating Communities Initiatives: Concepts, Methods, and
Contexts, Washington, DC: The Aspen Institute, 1995.
Covert, R.W, Guidelines and Criteria for Constructing Questionnaires, University of
Virginia: Evaluation Research Center, 1977.
Cronbach, Lee J. and Associates, Toward Reform of Program Evaluation, San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1980.
Fetterman, David M., Shakeh J. Kaftarian, and Abraham Wandersman, (eds.)
Empowerment Evaluation: Knowledge and Tools for Self-Assessment & Accountability,
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1996.
Feuerstein, Marie-Therese, Partners in Evaluation, London: Macmillan
Fink, A., and J. Kosecoff, How to Conduct Surveys: A Step-by-Step Guide, Newbury
Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1989.
Freeman, HE., GD. Sandfur, and PH. Rossi, Workbook for Evaluation: A Systematic
Approach, Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1989.
FreyJ., Survey Research by Telephone, 2nd ed. Newbury Park, CA: Sage
Furano, Kathryn, Linda Z. Jucovy, David P. Racine, and Thomas J. Smith, The
Essential Connection: Using Evaluation to Identify Programs Worth Replicating,
Replication and Program Strategies, Inc., Philadelphia, PA, 1995.
Gilligan, Carol, "Women's Place in Man's Life Cycle." In Sandra Harding (ed.)
Feminism and Metho dology, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.
Gilligan, Carol, Lyn Mikel Brown, and Annie Rogers, "Psyche Embedded: A
Place for Body, Relationships and Culture in Personality Theory." In A. Rabin, R.
Zucker, R. Emmons and S. Frank (eds.) Studying Persons and Lives, New York:
Gray, S.T. and Associates, Evaluation With Power: A New Approach to Organizational
Effectiveness, Empowerment, and Excellence, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers,
Cuba, E.C., and Y.S. Lincoln, Effective Evaluation, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Publishers, Inc., 1981.
Henry, G.T., Practical Sampling, Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1990.
Herman. J. L., Program Evaluation Kit, 2nd ed., Newbury Park, CA: Sage
House, E.R., Evaluating With Validity, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications,
Isaac, S., and W.B. Michael, Handbook in Research and Evaluation, San Diego: Edits
Kidder, L.H., CM. Judd, and E.R. Smith, Research Methods in Social Relations, 6th
ed., New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, Inc., 1991.
KosecofF, Jacqueline, and Arlene Fink, Evaluation Basics: A Practitioner's Manual,
Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1982.
Krueger, R.A., Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research, Newbury
Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1988.
Lavrakas, P.J., Telephone Survey Methods: Sampling, Selection, and Supervision,
Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1987.
LinneyJA., and A.Wandersman, Prevention Plus III: Assessing Alcohol and Other
Drug Prevention Programs at the School and Community Level, Rockville, MD: U.S.
Dept. of Health and Human Services, 1991.
Littell,J.H, Building Strong Foundations: Evaluation Strategies for Family Resource
Programs, Chicago, IL: Family Resource Coalition, 1986.
Love, A.J. (ed.), Internal Evaluation: Building Organizations From Within, Newbury
Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1991.
Madaus, G, M. Scriven, and D.L. Stufflebeam, (eds.), Evaluation Models, Boston:
Kluwer-Nijhoff Publishing, 1985.
Maxwell, J. A. andY.S. Lincoln, Methodology and Epistemology: A Dialogue, Harvard
Educational Review, 60(4), P.497-512, 1990.
McKnight,John L. and John Kretzmann, Mapping Community Capacity, Chicago:
Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research at Northwestern University, 1990.
Miles, M.B., and A.M. Huberman, Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded
Sourcebook, 2nd ed., Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1994.
Morris, Lynn Lyons, and Carol Taylor Fitz-Gibbon, How to Deal with Goals and
Objectives, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1978.
Morris, Lynn Lyons, and Carol Taylor Fitz-Gibbon, How to Design a Program
Evaluation, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1978.
Morris, Lynn Lyons, and Carol Taylor Fitz-Gibbon, How to Measure Program
Implementation, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1978.
Morris, Lynn Lyons, and Carol Taylor Fitz-Gibbon, How to Present an Evaluation
Report, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1978.
National Center for Clinical Infant Programs, Charting Change in Infants, Families,
and Services: A Guide to Program Evaluation for Administrators and Practitioners,
Washington, DC: Author, 1987.
Nielson, Joyce M., "Introduction" in J. Nielson (Ed.) Feminist Research Methods,
Boulder: Westview Press, 1990.
, Evaluating Service Programs for Infants, Toddlers, and Their Families: A Guide
for Policy Makers and Funders, Washington, DC: Author, 1987.
Patton, Michael Quinn, Practical Evaluation, Newbury Park, CA: Sage
, Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods, 2nd ed., Newbury Park, CA:
Sage Publications, 1990.
, Utilization-Focused Evaluation: The New Century Text, 3rd ed., Beverly
Hills: Sage Publications, 1997.
Posavac and Carey, Program Evaluation, 5th ed., Prentice-Hall. 1997.
Reason, Peter, Human Inquiry in Action: Developments in New Paradigm Research,
Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1993.
Reinharz, Shulamit, "Experimental Analysis: A Contribution to Feminist
Research" in G Bowles and R. Klien (Eds.), Theories of Women's Studies, Boston:
Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1993.
Rossi, Peter H., and Howard E. Freeman, Evaluation: A Systematic Approach,
Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1993.
Sanders, James R., The Program Evaluation Standards: How to Assess Evaluations of
Educational Programs, 2nd ed., Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1994.
Saxe, L., and M. Fine, Social Experiments: Methods for Design and Evaluation,
Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1981.
Schalock, Robert L., and CraigeVD. Thornton, Program Evaluation: A Field Guide
for Administrators, New York: Plenum Press, 1988.
Schorr, Lisbeth B., and Anne C. Kubisch, "New Approaches to Evaluation:
Helping Sister Mary Paul, Geoff Canada, and Otis Johnson While Convincing Pat
Moynihan, Newt Gingrich, and the American Public," Presentation. Annie E.
Casey Foundation Annual Research/Evaluation Conference: Using Research
and Evaluation Information to Improve Programs and Policies, September 1995.
Scriven, Michael, Evaluation Thesaurus, 4th ed., Newbury Park, CA: Sage
Shadish, William R., Jr., Thomas D. Cook, and Laura C. Leviton, Foundations of
Program Evaluation: Theories of Practice, Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications,
Smith, M.F, Evaluability Assessment: A Practical Approach , Boston: Kluwer
Academic Publishers, 1989.
Stainback,W. and S. Stainback, Understanding and Conducting Qualitative Research,
Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 1988.
Stockdill, Stacey Hueftle, How to Evaluate Foundation Programs, St. Paul, MN: The
Saint Paul Foundation, Inc., 1993.
Travers,J.R., and R.J. Light, Learning From Experience: Evaluating Early Childhood
Demonstration Programs, Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1982.
United Way of America, Current United Way Approaches to Measuring Program
Outcomes and Community Change, Alexandria, VA, 1995.
van der Eyken,W Introducing Evaluation,The Hague: Bernard van Leer
Weiss, Carol H, "Nothing as Practical as Good Theory: Exploring Theory-Based
Evaluation for Comprehensive Community Initiatives for Children and
Families." In James Connell, et al. (ed.), New Approaches to Evaluating Community
Initiatives: Concepts, Methods and Contexts, Washington D.C.: The Aspen Institute,
Weiss, H.B., and F.H.Jacobs, (eds.), Evaluating Family Programs, New York: Aldine
de Gruyter, 1988.
Weiss, H.B., and R. Halpern, The Challenges of Evaluating State Family Support and
Education Initiatives: An Evaluation Framework, Cambridge, MA: Harvard Family
Research Project, 1989.
Wholey, Joseph S., Harry P. Hatry, and Kathryn E. Newcomer, (eds.), Handbook of
Practical Program Evaluation, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1994.
Wilkin, David, Leslie Hallam, and Marie- Anne Doggett, Measures of Need and
Outcome for Primary Health Care, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Williams, Harold S., Arthur Y.Webb, and William J. Phillips, Outcome Funding: A
New Approach to Targeted Grantmaking, 2nd ed., Rensselaerville, NY: The
Rensselaerville Institute, 1993.
Worthen, Blaine R., and James R. Sanders, andjody L. Fitzpatrick, Program
Evaluation: Alternative Approaches and Practical Guidelines, 2nd ed., White Plains,
NY: Longman Inc., 1997.
Yavorsky, D.K., Discrepancy Evaluation: A Practitioner's Guide, University of
Virginia: Evaluation Research Center, 1984.
Yin, R.K., Case Study Research: Design and Methods, rev. ed., Newbury Park, CA:
Sage Publications, 1989.
Director of Evaluation
Ricardo A. Millett
Editorial Direction and Writing
This W.K. Kellogg Foundation Evaluation Handbook is a reflection of the collective
work of the Evaluation Unit. It has benefitted from the experiences of many
evaluation practitioners and project directors.
Much of the handbook is based on the W.K. Kellogg Foundation Program
Evaluation Manual, compiled and written by James Sanders. We also acknowledge
the University of Illinois at Chicago, whose manual Evaluating Your Project
significantly informed this effort.
To give feedback on this publication, write to Ricardo A. Millett, W.K. Kellogg
Foundation, One Michigan Avenue East, Battle Creek, MI, 49017-4058, USA or
send e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org.
To order a copy of this Evaluation Handbook, contact Collateral Management
Company, 1255 Hill Brady Road, Battle Creek, MI, 49015, (616) 964-0700. Ask
for item number 1203.
298 3.5M STA